· IPv6 became a necessity. Routing in

Integrated Internet Protocol security (IPsec): Initially, Internet Protocol was not
designed with security in mind (Kumar et al., 2011). Therefore, data was not
protected in the IP layer. When data security became a major issue, different
security techniques were developed and implemented in the upper layers of the
protocol suite to protect data from unauthorized access. The use of different
security technologies in the upper layers for the same purpose means that
security functionality is duplicated. To overcome this problem, a new security
layer called IPsec was built into IPv6 to protect packets in the IP layer.
IPsec protects packets by providing integrity, confidentiality, authentication
and non–repudiation.


Improvements in IPv6 packet structure makes
it different from the packet structure of IPv4. This means that routing IPv6
traffic will not be supported by older routing protocols used in IPv4. Because
of network scalability and reliability are mostly important, development of dynamic
routing protocols supported by IPv6 became a necessity.

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Routing in a communication network refers to
the transmission of data from source to destination by hopping either one hop
or multiple hops. Routing protocols provide at least two services:

selecting best paths between source and destination nodes

successfully transmitting data to a specified destination


Based on routing algorithms, routing
protocols are able to discover available routes, construct routing tables, take
routing decisions, and exchange information with each other. The routing
algorithms use different metrics based on some properties of a path which helps
to determine the best route to reach a destination network.

When it comes to larger communication
networks, dynamic routing is preferred over static routing. In dynamic routing,
similar routing protocols are configured on routers to enable them discover
remote networks.

However, on a larger network,
dynamic routing protocols will save time but consumes network resources.
Dynamic routing protocols are also more scalable; something that enables them
to automatically adapt to any change in network topology. For example, when a
new network is added to the existing network, dynamic routing protocols are
able to discover the new network automatically. Also, when there is a node or a
route failure, they are able to determine alternative routes and retransmit
traffic via these routes with minimal disruption.


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