1.1 composition of the biomass which includes moisture

1.1     Characterization of Feed: In this study the characterization of biomass has been done through proximate analysis. By this analysis we can determine moisture content, ash content and volatile matter content.   1.1.1     Proximate analysis: Proximate analysis is used for the calculation of chemical composition of the biomass which includes moisture content, ash content, volatile matter content and fixed carbon. There are three tests to perform this analysis; Moisture test (D3173-ASTM), Volatile matter Test (D3175-ASTM), and Ash Test (D3174-ASTM). The purpose of this analysis is to control the moisture content in biomass and ultimately reduce the ash content. It also helps us how much quantify the volatile matter is present in a given mass of biomass. Tarred crucible of known weight is used to seize sample approximately 1g, in a furnace. The details of the tests are tabled below:Calculation of proximate analysis of biomass

Proximate analysis tests

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Temperature   (co)

Time (min)

% calculation

moisture content

105-110

30

MC%=

ash content

750

30

AC%=

volatile matter

925

7

VM%=  -MC%

fixed carbon

By difference

FC%=100-(MC%+VM%+AC%)

1Initial mass of the sample2final mass of the sample (after heating) For proximate analysis different types of furnaces and oven used which is shown in a figure below:               (a)                                       (b)                                                    (c) (a) Oven for moisture content, (b) Muffle furnace for ash content and (c) Muffle furnace for volatile matter content 1.1.2     Calorific value test: Bomb calorimeter is a type of constant volume calorimeter used for the determination of the combustion of a particular reaction. Three types of selected biomass with lowest moister content has been tested under bomb calorimeter. Diagram of Bomb Calorimeter 1.2     Characterization of Bio-oil: After completion of fifteen experiments then the each sample of bio-oil was analyzed for the identification value added chemical furfural. Each sample of bio-oil had been operated at different temperature with different catalysts and different feedstocks. Pyrolysis of biomass formed three types of products like pyrolysis oil, pyrolysis char and pyrolysis vapors.1.2.1     Gas Chromatography- Flame Ionization Detector Analysis: All fifteen samples were analyzed on GC-FID using acetone to investigate the pyrolysis bio-oil in order to identify the target chemical (Furfural).  List of different peak areas has been obtained from the detector. The FID is a useful general detector for the analysis of organic compounds; it has high sensitivity, a large linear response range, and low noise. It is also robust and easy to use, but it destroys the injected sample. The time between sample injection and an analyte peak reaching a detector at the end of the column is termed the retention time (tR ). Each analyte in a sample will have a different retention time. The time taken for the mobile phase to pass through the column is called tM. A GC can separate the compounds, but cannot identify them itself. By calibrating GC you can find out at what time of target organic compound is being detected. The area under the curve expressed in terms of concentration of the sample by running some calibration standards at known concentration (www.umd.umich.edu).       GC-FID Capillary Column DB-1, ID: USD635014H 1.2.2     FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) Analysis: 

The product bio-oil samples of the experiments with the lowest moisture content (i.e. Bagasse, sawdust (Poplar) and pure sample of furfural are subjected to FTIR analysis. FTIR spectral analysis was performed within the wave number range of 500–4000 cm?1. This analysis has been carried out in department of polymer engineering University of the Punjab using IRPrestige-21 model shown in figure. The results of 3 oil samples have been shown in figure.  

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