1.1 DRINKS: (a) WATER PRETREATMENT: · Major ingredient,

1.1                                                                                                                                                                       
INTRODUCTION:

Definition:

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“Any liquid intended for sale for human
consumption, either without or after dilution, but excluding water, fruit juice,
milk or milk preparations, tea, coffee, cocoa, egg products, meat, yeast, or
vegetable extracts, soups, vegetables juices, intoxicating liquor”

The
term soft drinks encompasses
all non-alcoholic
drinks (including non-alcoholic beer and wine and water), but in common
usage tea, coffee, etc., and milk-based drinks are usually excluded. Soft
drinks were derived from the two main
sources, fruit-flavored sparkling waters associated with the popularity of
the great European spas and
non-alcoholic versions of domestically brewed herb beers. The temperance
movement of the 19th century provided a major stimulus for the soft
drinks industry which, in the UK,
grew to a very large size. Although relatively small-scale manufacture
continues today at a local level, much of the industry operates on a national and supra-national level, and the efforts of the Coca
ColaTM and Pepsi
ColaTM  companies to establish a global
hegemony. New products have been developed within established brand names, such
as the variants of Coca
ColaTM but over the years many traditional products,
especially those derived from herbal brews, have disappeared.

 

CARBONATED
DRINKS:

Carbonated
soft drinks are invariably consumed without
dilution, and include crushes, citrus comminutes and lemonade and
other drinks of the latter category, including colas and mixer
drinks.

GLOBAL TOP 10 CARBONATED DRINK COMPANIES

Off-trade volume

Volume

Company

1

Coca-Cola

2

PepsiCo Inc

3

Groupe Danone

4

Nestle SA

5

Tingyi Holdings corps

6

Dr Pepper Snapple Group Inc

7

Suntory Holdings Ltd

8

Hangzhou Wahaha Group

9

Uni-President Enterprises Corp

10

Aje Group

 

1.2 INGREDIENTS
OF CARBONATED SOFT DRINKS:

INGREDIENTS OF THE CARBONATED SOFT DRINKS

Water

Syrup

Sweetener

Acidulants

Colors

Preservatives

Antioxidants

Emulsifiers

Stabilizers

Clouding Agents

Foaming Agents

 

                                                                 

1.3                                                                                                                                                                       
MANUFACTURING OF CARBONATED
SOFT DRINKS:

(a)  
WATER PRETREATMENT:

·        
Major ingredient, comprising 90% of
the total.

·        
The quality of water used has direct
implications for the end product-quality and pretreatment
is invariably required.

·        
The nature of the pre-treatment varies
according to the source of the water and its chemical composition.

·        
Removal of microscopic and colloidal
particles by coagulation and filtration, softening and pH adjustment
(alkalinity reduction) may all, however, be necessary where water supplies are
of poor quality.

·        
Disinfection
is required where municipal water supplies are used in order to remove
bacteria.

·        
Chlorination
is preferred for the destruction of
vegetative microorganisms and
is advantageous in removing oxidizable materials in addition to soluble iron
compounds, and also in aiding coagulation processes.

 

Chemical aspects of treatment
required super-chlorination with doses above 2 mg/l.

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN
IMPURITIES IN WATER AND QUALITY DEFECTS IN CARBONATED DRINKS

Impurity

Standard

Defect

Taste

Tasteless

Off-flavor

Odor

Odorless

Off-odor, off-flavor

Color

5 hazen units

Off color, off-flavor

Turbidity

1 mg/l1

Off color, off-flavor

Sediment

None

Sediment, off-odor, off- flavor

Free Chlorine

0.05 mg/l

Off-flavor

Manganese

0.3 mg/l

Off-flavor, sediment

Lead

0.1 mg/l

Toxic

Copper

0.5 mg/l

Toxic

Fluoride

2.0 mg/l

Mottles teeth

Nitrate

10 mg/l2

Possible illness in young children, damage to cans

Nitrite

1 mg/l2

Possible illness in young children, nitrosamine formation

 

De-aeration
of water is required to facilitate subsequent carbonation and
filling
operations and to improve the perceived quality of the dispended drink. It
either uses a vacuum to remove all dissolved gases or CO2 stripping,
in which case some CO2 remains in solution after de-aeration.

(b)  
SUGAR SYRUP PREPARATION:

·        
Preparation of sugar syrup is  relatively a simple procedure involving
mixing of ingredients, measured either manually or automatically, in stainless
steel tanks fitted with top-driven agitators.

·        
A recent practice includes heat
treatment of the sugar syrup using plate heat exchanger.

FLAVOURING

Fruit juice

Essences

Vegetable and nut extracts

Herb extracts

Product specific flavorings such as quinine

 

Sweeteners:

·        
Sweetness is an important aspect of the
character of soft drinks and in many countries minimum sugar contents are
stipulated.

·        
In the UK, for instance, minimum added
sugar of soft drinks consumed without dilution is 4.5% (w/v), with the
exception of ‘dry’ ginger ale where the lower level of 3% is permitted.

·        
In continental Europe, traditional soft drinks are sweetened with sucrose derived
from sugar beet, while in the UK cane sucrose is also used.

·        
UK regulations also permit the use of
the intense
sweetener “saccharin” and for
this reason tend to have lower sucrose content than equivalent drinks produced
in continental
Europe.

·        
Sucrose may be added in dry (granular)
form or as 67% (w/v) aqueous syrup.

·        
The major sugar replacement for sucrose
is HFCS
(High Fructose Corn Syrup) manufactured
by enzymatic
hydrolysis of starch to glucose, which
is then converted to fructose by glucose isomerase.

INTENSE SWEETENERS IN
SOFT DRINK FORMULATIONS

Sweetener

Relative sweetness

Acesulfame K

110-200

Alitame

2000-2900

Aspartame

120-215

Cyclamates

30-140

Neohesperidin
dihydrochalcone

250-1800

Saccharin

300-700

Stevioside/Stevia

140-280

Sucralose

400-800

Thaumatin

1300-2000

Acidulants:

·        
The acid gives carbonated water a slightly
tart flavor.

·        
Carbonated soft drinks differ from
non-carbonated in containing carbonic acid.

ACIDULANTS IN SOFT DRINK FORMULATION

Acidulant

Properties

Acetic acid

Used only where strong, vinegar character
improves flavor valance.

Ascorbic acid

Initiate browning after heat treatment and destabilizes some
colors.

Citric acid

Highly acceptable in fruit drinks

Fumaric acid

May be used in place of citrate to obtain equivalent palate
acidity at lower usage rate. Less soluble than citric acid.

Lactic acid

Smooth flavor in comparison with other acids.

Malic acid

Slightly stronger than citric acid with more pronounced
fruitiness.

Phosphoric acid

Suited to non-fruit drinks. Effective in colas.

Tartaric acid

More sharply flavored than citric acid and maybe used at lower
rates.

 

Colors:

·        
Coloring has no direct effect on the
sensory properties of soft drinks.

·        
Additional coloring is used to reinforce
the consumers perception of flavor where permitted.

COLORS IN SOFT DRINK FORMULATION

Colors

Properties

Anthocyanins

Attractive red, blue and purple colors. Prone to
decolorization

Azo dyes

Bright colors can be considered lurid.

Caramel

Used only in dark, heavy drinks such as colas and root beer.

Carotenoids

Orange-red color. Fat-soluble.

Chlorophyll

Green color. Soft natural
stable under acidic conditions and in light.

Polymeric dyes

Expensive but better performance than natural colors.

 

   

Preservatives:

·        
Preservatives are used to prevent the spoilage
microorganisms.

·        
Four main types of preservatives used in
the carbonated soft drinks are:

o  
Sulphur dioxide

o  
Benzoic acid and benzoates

o  
Esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid
(parabens)

o  
Sorbic acid and sorbates

PRESERVATIVES IN CARBONATED SOFT DRINKS FORMULATION

Preservatives

Properties

Benzoic acid & benzoates

Effective against a wide range of microorganisms
Synergistic with SO2
 Allergenic

Parabens

More effective than benzoic acid at pH above 3
Antimicrobial agent
Allergenic

Sorbic acid & sorbates

More effective at low pH
Allergenic

Sulphur dioxide

Most effective at pH values below 4
Effective against yeast, moulds and gram negative bacteria
Allergenic

 

 

Antioxidants:

·        
Antioxidants added before emulsification
in order to retard oxidation which maybe initiated by the introduction
of air.

·        
Ascorbic acid
(Vitamin C) employed
to protect sensitive compounds in the aqueous.

·        
BHA (Butylated Hydroxy
Anisole) and
BHT (Butylated Hyrdroxy Toluene) are
the most widely used antioxidants in the past which is now replaced by Tocopherols,
synthetic
Tocopherols and Ascorbyl Palmitate and its salts.

Emulsifiers:

·        
Emulsions impart
cloud and flavor.

Clouding agents:

·        
The clouding agent contributes to the opacity
without affecting the stability by producing creaming, ringing or separation
and must also have no effect on color, taste and odor.

Stabilizers:

·        
Stabilizers are used both to stabilize emulsions as
well as maintain the dispersion of fruit solids.

·        
Increase viscosity.

·        
Improves mouth feel.

Foaming agents:

·        
A head of foam is considered desirable
in carbonated drinks, such as in shandy, ginger beer
and colas.

·        
The most effective foaming agents are:

o  
Saponins

o  
Quillalia
extract

o  
Yucca
extract

CARBONATED SOFT DRINKS

Antioxidants

Ascorbic Acid
BHA (Butylated Hydroxy Anisole)
BHT (Butylated Hydroxy Toluene)
Ascorbyl palmitate and its salts
Natural and synthetic tocopherols

Emulsifiers

Proteins
Sucrose esters

Stabilizers

Extract of Quillalia
Guar gum

Clouding agents

Guar gum

Foaming agents

Quillalia extract
Yucca extract

 

(c)   
CARBONATION AND FILLING:

“Addition of carbon dioxide OR impregnation of a liquid with CO2 is referred to
as carbonation.”

Carbonation
takes place in two ways: either
all ingredients are dissolved in water or CO2 is added OR CO2 is first dissolved in
water and added to the mixture of ingredients.

Carbon dioxide gas gets dissolved
in water at a low concentration (0.2-1.0%)
that creates carbonic acid (H2CO3)
which is responsible for extra sparkle in the mouth-feel, flavor and bite.

H2O
+ CO2 ® H2CO3

·        
CO2 is the only gas suitable for producing the sparkle in carbonated drinks.

·        
The solubility
is such as to allow retention in solution at ambient
temperature and yet also allow the
release of and attractive swirl of bubbles from
the drink when slightly agitated this phenomenon is known as effervescence and is expected in the carbonated drinks.

(d)  
BOTTLING:

·        
Carbonated
beverages are filled into either:

o  
Bottles
(PET bottles)

o   Cans (Ring-pull type)

1.4           
ADVANTAGES OF DISADVANTAGES CARBONATED SOFT DRINKS:

·        
Assists in masking taste of certain
drugs.

·        
It contains large proportion of sugar
which is a cause of problem for diabetic patients.

·        
Leads to weight gain.

·        
Suppress hunger feelings.

·        
Injurious for bones as they have the
ability to dissolves calcium resulting in Osteoporosis.

·        
Detrimental to body as it has the
ability to remove blood.

1.5                                                                                                                                                                 
 CONCLUSION:

The
gigantic majority of soft drinks are made from heat-treated sugar
syrup and disinfection of water. Soft drinks, in general, support the growth of only limited microorganisms. SO2
is considered effective against all micro-organisms. The elevated
dissolved concentration of CO2 is an important factor in order to control the
growth of microorganisms. Carbonation becomes fully affective at carbonation
levels above 2.5-3 volumes, acetic acid bacteria being most sensitive. Yeasts are the most resistant. Brettanomyces
spp. And Dekkera anomala being able to grow in a medium containing 4.45
volume of CO2.

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