1.1 DRINKS: (a) WATER PRETREATMENT: · Major ingredient,
“Any liquid intended for sale for human
consumption, either without or after dilution, but excluding water, fruit juice,
milk or milk preparations, tea, coffee, cocoa, egg products, meat, yeast, or
vegetable extracts, soups, vegetables juices, intoxicating liquor”
term soft drinks encompasses
drinks (including non-alcoholic beer and wine and water), but in common
usage tea, coffee, etc., and milk-based drinks are usually excluded. Soft
drinks were derived from the two main
sources, fruit-flavored sparkling waters associated with the popularity of
the great European spas and
non-alcoholic versions of domestically brewed herb beers. The temperance
movement of the 19th century provided a major stimulus for the soft
drinks industry which, in the UK,
grew to a very large size. Although relatively small-scale manufacture
continues today at a local level, much of the industry operates on a national and supra-national level, and the efforts of the Coca
ColaTM and Pepsi
ColaTM companies to establish a global
hegemony. New products have been developed within established brand names, such
as the variants of Coca
ColaTM but over the years many traditional products,
especially those derived from herbal brews, have disappeared.
soft drinks are invariably consumed without
dilution, and include crushes, citrus comminutes and lemonade and
other drinks of the latter category, including colas and mixer
GLOBAL TOP 10 CARBONATED DRINK COMPANIES
Tingyi Holdings corps
Dr Pepper Snapple Group Inc
Suntory Holdings Ltd
Hangzhou Wahaha Group
Uni-President Enterprises Corp
OF CARBONATED SOFT DRINKS:
INGREDIENTS OF THE CARBONATED SOFT DRINKS
MANUFACTURING OF CARBONATED
Major ingredient, comprising 90% of
The quality of water used has direct
implications for the end product-quality and pretreatment
is invariably required.
The nature of the pre-treatment varies
according to the source of the water and its chemical composition.
Removal of microscopic and colloidal
particles by coagulation and filtration, softening and pH adjustment
(alkalinity reduction) may all, however, be necessary where water supplies are
of poor quality.
is required where municipal water supplies are used in order to remove
is preferred for the destruction of
vegetative microorganisms and
is advantageous in removing oxidizable materials in addition to soluble iron
compounds, and also in aiding coagulation processes.
Chemical aspects of treatment
required super-chlorination with doses above 2 mg/l.
IMPURITIES IN WATER AND QUALITY DEFECTS IN CARBONATED DRINKS
5 hazen units
Off color, off-flavor
Off color, off-flavor
Sediment, off-odor, off- flavor
Possible illness in young children, damage to cans
Possible illness in young children, nitrosamine formation
of water is required to facilitate subsequent carbonation and
operations and to improve the perceived quality of the dispended drink. It
either uses a vacuum to remove all dissolved gases or CO2 stripping,
in which case some CO2 remains in solution after de-aeration.
SUGAR SYRUP PREPARATION:
Preparation of sugar syrup is relatively a simple procedure involving
mixing of ingredients, measured either manually or automatically, in stainless
steel tanks fitted with top-driven agitators.
A recent practice includes heat
treatment of the sugar syrup using plate heat exchanger.
Vegetable and nut extracts
Product specific flavorings such as quinine
Sweetness is an important aspect of the
character of soft drinks and in many countries minimum sugar contents are
In the UK, for instance, minimum added
sugar of soft drinks consumed without dilution is 4.5% (w/v), with the
exception of ‘dry’ ginger ale where the lower level of 3% is permitted.
In continental Europe, traditional soft drinks are sweetened with sucrose derived
from sugar beet, while in the UK cane sucrose is also used.
UK regulations also permit the use of
sweetener “saccharin” and for
this reason tend to have lower sucrose content than equivalent drinks produced
Sucrose may be added in dry (granular)
form or as 67% (w/v) aqueous syrup.
The major sugar replacement for sucrose
(High Fructose Corn Syrup) manufactured
hydrolysis of starch to glucose, which
is then converted to fructose by glucose isomerase.
INTENSE SWEETENERS IN
SOFT DRINK FORMULATIONS
The acid gives carbonated water a slightly
Carbonated soft drinks differ from
non-carbonated in containing carbonic acid.
ACIDULANTS IN SOFT DRINK FORMULATION
Used only where strong, vinegar character
improves flavor valance.
Initiate browning after heat treatment and destabilizes some
Highly acceptable in fruit drinks
May be used in place of citrate to obtain equivalent palate
acidity at lower usage rate. Less soluble than citric acid.
Smooth flavor in comparison with other acids.
Slightly stronger than citric acid with more pronounced
Suited to non-fruit drinks. Effective in colas.
More sharply flavored than citric acid and maybe used at lower
Coloring has no direct effect on the
sensory properties of soft drinks.
Additional coloring is used to reinforce
the consumers perception of flavor where permitted.
COLORS IN SOFT DRINK FORMULATION
Attractive red, blue and purple colors. Prone to
Bright colors can be considered lurid.
Used only in dark, heavy drinks such as colas and root beer.
Orange-red color. Fat-soluble.
Green color. Soft natural
stable under acidic conditions and in light.
Expensive but better performance than natural colors.
Preservatives are used to prevent the spoilage
Four main types of preservatives used in
the carbonated soft drinks are:
Benzoic acid and benzoates
Esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid
Sorbic acid and sorbates
PRESERVATIVES IN CARBONATED SOFT DRINKS FORMULATION
Benzoic acid & benzoates
Effective against a wide range of microorganisms
Synergistic with SO2
More effective than benzoic acid at pH above 3
Sorbic acid & sorbates
More effective at low pH
Most effective at pH values below 4
Effective against yeast, moulds and gram negative bacteria
Antioxidants added before emulsification
in order to retard oxidation which maybe initiated by the introduction
(Vitamin C) employed
to protect sensitive compounds in the aqueous.
BHA (Butylated Hydroxy
BHT (Butylated Hyrdroxy Toluene) are
the most widely used antioxidants in the past which is now replaced by Tocopherols,
Tocopherols and Ascorbyl Palmitate and its salts.
cloud and flavor.
The clouding agent contributes to the opacity
without affecting the stability by producing creaming, ringing or separation
and must also have no effect on color, taste and odor.
Stabilizers are used both to stabilize emulsions as
well as maintain the dispersion of fruit solids.
Improves mouth feel.
A head of foam is considered desirable
in carbonated drinks, such as in shandy, ginger beer
The most effective foaming agents are:
CARBONATED SOFT DRINKS
BHA (Butylated Hydroxy Anisole)
BHT (Butylated Hydroxy Toluene)
Ascorbyl palmitate and its salts
Natural and synthetic tocopherols
Extract of Quillalia
CARBONATION AND FILLING:
“Addition of carbon dioxide OR impregnation of a liquid with CO2 is referred to
takes place in two ways: either
all ingredients are dissolved in water or CO2 is added OR CO2 is first dissolved in
water and added to the mixture of ingredients.
Carbon dioxide gas gets dissolved
in water at a low concentration (0.2-1.0%)
that creates carbonic acid (H2CO3)
which is responsible for extra sparkle in the mouth-feel, flavor and bite.
+ CO2 ® H2CO3
CO2 is the only gas suitable for producing the sparkle in carbonated drinks.
is such as to allow retention in solution at ambient
temperature and yet also allow the
release of and attractive swirl of bubbles from
the drink when slightly agitated this phenomenon is known as effervescence and is expected in the carbonated drinks.
beverages are filled into either:
o Cans (Ring-pull type)
ADVANTAGES OF DISADVANTAGES CARBONATED SOFT DRINKS:
Assists in masking taste of certain
It contains large proportion of sugar
which is a cause of problem for diabetic patients.
Leads to weight gain.
Suppress hunger feelings.
Injurious for bones as they have the
ability to dissolves calcium resulting in Osteoporosis.
Detrimental to body as it has the
ability to remove blood.
gigantic majority of soft drinks are made from heat-treated sugar
syrup and disinfection of water. Soft drinks, in general, support the growth of only limited microorganisms. SO2
is considered effective against all micro-organisms. The elevated
dissolved concentration of CO2 is an important factor in order to control the
growth of microorganisms. Carbonation becomes fully affective at carbonation
levels above 2.5-3 volumes, acetic acid bacteria being most sensitive. Yeasts are the most resistant. Brettanomyces
spp. And Dekkera anomala being able to grow in a medium containing 4.45
volume of CO2.