1. an income for themselves to run their
1. Introduction1.1 Research Background:Fair trade business is commonly assumed as a technique to help nation’s growth with Fair Trade association being the branch of ‘new globalization’, redesigning patterns of global trade as well as the practices of corporate extension, which have unidentified international social and ecological conditions, historically. Fair trade business provides women the opportunity to earn an income for themselves to run their family. Also, they may give for their families without depending on their husband or parents. Women, who are working in the fair trade supportive has, chance to turn into leaders between their peers. Many fair trade employees turn into entrepreneurs, recruiting other female employees to work for them and also with them. Both men and women work uniformly in fair trade businesses with no injustice towards age, gender, religion or other personal orientation (McArdle and Thomas, 2012).According to Cause Artist (2017), there are four ways for fair trade business that assists women employees in the developing world include:i. Fair trade business endorses gender equality:The best thing of fair trade business is the fact, where it may actually endorse gender equality. Because still men own farm lands and plantations, women have been pushed to artisan work, traditionally. Hence, purchasing more fair trade handicrafts and jewelries from females owned businesses helps women empowerment efficiently and push the scale towards the gender equality. ii. Fair trade motivates women to run their own business:The theory of fair trade is in which the artisans should be in possession of the workshop they work in.iii. Fair trade provides greater pays respective of the enterprise:Fair trade assures payments greater than normal for the enterprise or the nation, more money goes to the women handicrafts and artisans. By more money, the workshop owners may improve the lives of their co-op owners, offer superior operating conditions, provide healthcare advantages like paid sick leave and maternity leave and offer long-lasting education to its members. iv. Certification of fair trade needs community growth:The most significant theory of fair trade is considered as the part of additional payments the artisans or producers acquire for their products is the part of these revenues has to assist the community growth. Fair trade business appears to endorse gender equity and women empowerment through securing women from inequity in the labor force and endorsing their membership or inclusion in manufacturer cooperatives. Fair trade is endorsed as a trading system, which empowers women manufacturers (Hutchens, 2010). 1.2 Problem Statement:There has been more number of problems that were examined in the prior analyses. There are some core levers in fair trade businesses such as break borders for strategic partnerships, employ women in design and distribution, cultivate champions, take benefit of favorable timing and context, generate ‘buzz’ to build it ‘stick’, synergize bottom-up and top-down approaches and target attempts to get to poor women. By incorporating these seven levers, apply gender lens to social, economic or technological innovations that target to solve the most challenging issues in the international growth. By developing innovation to foster higher gender equity and empower women, civil society, academia, government, business and women themselves have chance to generate and exploit new solutions, which provide fresh insights to complex problems (Malhotra et al, 2016). Disempowerment by an incapability to assume responsibility or a need of self-confidence of one’s own life is considered as the most unidentifiable problem. The most critical issues preventing empowerment of women is unfair and uneven global trade (Ward et al, 2013). Hence, this research acts as an exclusive analysis to analyze the impact of fair trade businesses as agents of women empowerment in the developing world. 1.3 Aim and Objectives:The main intention of this research is to study fair trade businesses as agents of women empowerment in the developing world.The following are the objectives of this study:i. To analyze the impact of fair trade on women producers engaged in the Fair Trade Businesses.ii. To examine the practices of women empowerment through women handicraft makers in India and Bangladesh.iii. To study how fair trade endorses gender equality and motivates women to run their own businesses.iv. To determine if fair trading handicraft businesses is an efficient model to empower women in countries like India and Bangladesh.v. To evaluate its efficiency in addressing problems that women face every day throughout these regions.1.4 Research Limitations: The research limitations are as follows:i. The study entirely focuses on the Fair Trade Businesses.ii. The findings of this study are exclusively concentrated on estimating the women empowerment in the developing world.iii. This study is quantitative in nature.iv. This study limited to India and Bangladesh.v. Due to limited time, only some participants were taken part to achieve the primary investigation of the study.2 Literature Review2.1 Existing studies:McArdle and Thomas (2012) targeted to estimate the fair trade impacts on producers with respect to women engaged in fair trade businesses. This research has assumed fair trade as a technique for growth and as a substitute to rational financial models. A GAD (Gender and Development) perception is employed to estimate whether fair trade empowers women in the developing countries. Fair trade provides a substitute to free trade inside industrialist production as well as has a positive impact for manufacturers. The impact of gender inequalities inside manufacturer communities is restricted, though there are advantages for some female employees engaged in fair trade businesses. Ward et al (2013) studied about the impact of fair trade clothing on women empowerment in Africa. This study has concentrated on three particular types of women empowerment include: social, economic and political to go down the particular attempts of fair trade clothing. Together with this study has identified how this enterprise is capable to address all these factors leading to women empowerment in Africa. The results of this study have confirmed the various benefits that women attain from joining the fair trade clothing business, whereas this enterprise may give women with huge chances that they can’t have had formerly to highly enhance their lives. A fair trade clothing business has continuous possibilities and if it is organized properly, then the simple piece of clothing has a chance to affect many people, stimulating over women beyond poverty. Mare (2012) performed an analysis on women handicraft manufacturers to examine the practices of women empowerment in Bangladesh. It investigated the practices as well as social associations entrenched in the actions of four SFTEPs (Southern Fair Trade Enterprises). More interest is drawn to the forms of change that women manufacturers think they are attaining and how such kind of change related to the Fair Trade employment. The findings have suggested that SFTEs have considerable role in motivating extra benefits and opportunities that contribute to the practices of women empowerment, offering practical methods for other socially liable types of employment.Hutchens (2010) analyzed fair trade craft enterprise from Asian craft producer systems shows two major obstacles include:i. The ‘charity’ approach of fair trade to the handicraft sector strengthens traditional gender hierarchies; andii. Lack of a policy structure and organizational devices, which endorse women empowerment as rights based more willingly than culture based problem. Hence, this article has determined two solutions for these above discrete issues include:i. Market based craft business model; andii. Human rights oriented policy structure and robust authoritarian devices in order to address the gender discrimination in fair trade business.2.2 Research gap:There are numerous researchers and analyses that are paying attention on the women empowerment by fair trade clothing in Africa. Following the assessment of formerly performed analysis, the research gap would be emphasized and that will need the significance of the study currently being sustained. The researchers have targeted to estimate the fair trade impacts on producers with respect to women engaged in fair trade businesses McArdle and Thomas (2012). A study was carried out by Mare (2012) to perform an analysis on women handicraft manufacturers to examine the practices of women empowerment in Bangladesh. Hutchens (2010) analyzed fair trade craft enterprise from Asian women craft producer systems. However, there has been no other specific research is focused on the fair trade businesses as agents of women empowerment in the developing world. Thus, this study perspective has usually aimed to investigate the impact of fair trade businesses on women empowerment in the developing world. Hypothesis:· Null hypothesis: Social factors of fair trade businesses have no significant impact on women empowerment in India and Bangladesh Alternative Hypothesis: Social factors of fair trade businesses have significant impact on women empowerment in India and Bangladesh.· Null hypothesis: Cultural factors of fair trade businesses have no significant impact on women empowerment in India and Bangladesh Alternative Hypothesis: Cultural factors of fair trade businesses have significant impact on women empowerment in India and Bangladesh · Null hypothesis: Economic factors of fair trade businesses have no significant impact on women empowerment in India and Bangladesh Alternative Hypothesis: Economic factors of fair trade businesses have significant impact on women empowerment in India and Bangladesh 3 Research Methodology:3.1 Research Type:This research makes use of positivism as a research paradigm. The positivism paradigm asserts that real events can be observed empirically and explained with logical analysis Kaboub (2008). This study argues that positivism could be regarded as a research strategy and approach that is rooted on the ontological principle and doctrine that truth and reality is free and independent of the viewer and observer. The self-governing, independent and objective existence of truth can be seen as a definition and meaning of positivism in a number of write-ups (Ryan and Julia, 2007; and Urquhart, 2008). This research will be employing quantitative as a research approach. Williams (2007) noted that quantitative research is the process of collecting, analyzing, interpreting, and writing the results of a study, while qualitative research is the approach to data collection, analysis, and report writing differing from the traditional, quantitative approaches. As a result, data is used to objectively measure reality. Quantitative research creates meaning through objectivity uncovered in the collected data (Creswell, 2003). This research adopts descriptive as research design. Descriptive research can be explained as a statement of affairs as they are at present with the researcher having no control over variable. Three main purposes of descriptive studies can be explained as describing, explaining and validating research findings (Ethridge, 2004).3.2 Sampling Technique:Sampling strategy is the kind used to select significant respondents from the accessible tenants. There are two types of sampling strategies include probability and non-probability sampling. Among these two techniques, the present research makes use of non- probability sampling technique. As said by Ting et al (2016), Non-probability sampling is a sampling technique where the samples are gathered in a process that does not give all the individuals in the population equal chances of being selected.In this study, a Convenience sampling technique was employed to gather quantitative data from women handicraft producers in India and Bangladesh. The target population of this research is 150 women employees from Indian fair trade businesses and 100 employees from Bangladesh.3.3 Data collection instrument:Data would be collected from women producers, who are working in fair trade enterprises in India and Bangladesh. This research will be using primary as well as secondary data for the analysis. Primary data is collected with the aim of being foundation for the analyses in an investigation. Secondary data shows the sales of the product in fair trading enterprises. Data is to be collected by interviewing as many women employees as possible working in such enterprises.In quantitative data analysis, it is expected to turn raw numbers into meaningful data through the application of rational and critical thinking. Quantitative data collection methods rely on structured data collection instruments that fit diverse experiences into predetermined response categories. Data analysis for quantitative studies involves critical analysis and interpretation of figures and numbers, and attempts to find rationale behind the emergence of main findings (Dudovskiy, 2016). Closed ended questions are those that have their own predetermined response set. The major benefit of closed ended questions is that a big deal of time is saved in the data tabulation and coding it for computer analysis. Another major benefit is that closed ended questions with their response choices communicate similar reference frame to all respondents. The closed ended questions are used to conduct quantitative analysis.3.4 Statistical and software tools:The Statistical analysis depends on the objective of the study. The first Statistical task is therefore is to do a descriptive analysis of variables. The statistical tools that are used for the analysis of the primary data to be collected are Graphical method and Simple percentage method. The software tools used to analyze the primary data collected and examine the proposed research hypothesis are as follows: Microsoft Excel 2007, SPSS (Statistical Packages for Social Science) software.The research undergoes major significance in finding the quantitative research quality, as the key indicators of the quality of a measuring instrument are reliability and validity of the measures. Reliability is a concern every time a single observer is the source of data, because we have no certain guard against the impact of that observer’s subjectivity” (Babbie, 2010). Validity of research can be explained as an extent at which requirements of scientific research method have been followed during the process of generating research findings (Oliver, 2010).4 Expected Outcomes:This study reviews the reason behind the fair trade businesses in endorsing gender equality and motivating women to run their own businesses. There is a possible chance for revealing that a fair trading handicraft business is an efficient model to empower women in countries like India and Bangladesh. More effectively, the research perspectives can give better results for the future expectations. It will be more attractive to explore the impact of fair trade businesses on women empowerment in the developing world.