1. single element in a transaction fail then

1.      (a) Identify the main components of an
information system. What is a mission-critical system?

 Information
System consists of hardware, software, people and data.

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Examples
of Information System: ATM, Online Reservation System.

A mission-critical system is an
Information System that is important to a company’s day to day operations. Examples
of mission-critical system includes An order processing system without which a
company cannot function properly.

 

(b) Compare enterprise computing systems to
transaction processing systems with example.

 

Enterprise computing

Transaction processing (TP)
systems

Enterprise
computing systems support
company-wide
operations and data management requirements.

A company’s day-to-day business
operations generates data, this data is processed by Transaction processing (TP) systems.
 

Enterprise computing integrates a
company’s primary functions (such as production, sales, services and inventory
control). This integration will increase efficiency, decrease costs, and also
help managers make key decisions.

TP systems are usually employed
when there are large amounts of data. This huge pile of data needs to be
processed, so that the company can function smoothly. TP system is a mission-critical
system. The enterprise cannot work properly without it. Eg: TP systems in
Automatic Toll System.

Enterprise resource planning (ERP)
systems provide a cost efficient
support for all the employees like users and managers of the company.
 

TP systems process a set of
commands which are transaction related as a group but not individually. These
systems are efficient because of that.

Security and Reliability is achieved
in Enterprise computing by using a framework for accessing data and storing
data that is company-wide.

In TP systems to ensure data
integrity, the transaction is considered as a single block. If a single
element in a transaction fail then the whole transaction is rolled-back.

 

 

 

 

 

2.      (a) Briefly explain the difference between various
Systems Development Methods.

The
various systems development methods are structured analysis, object oriented
analysis, agile methods.

 

Structured Analysis

Object Oriented
Analysis

Agile Methods

Description

The system is
represented as data and the processes that process the data. The development
of the system is divided into several phases.
The waterfall model
consists of five phases: requirements, design, construction, testing, and
maintenance & evolution. It is quite possible to iterate among the
phases.

The whole system is considered as
an object that consists of data and processes.
People, things, transactions and
events are viewed as objects. Object Oriented Analysis is more interactive
than structural analysis.
 
 

In Agile methods intense effort
from the whole team is required. The development is broken down into cycles
or iterations or new functionality. It reduces the major risks as the main
tasks are divided into incremental steps.
The cycles are designed and built
and tested.

Modelling Tools

Process descriptions and Data
flow diagrams.

Diagrams of object-oriented
analysis shows actors of system, functions and messages.

Tools that can improve
communication like collaborative software, whiteboards and brainstorming.
Example : Business process
modelling.

Pros

Iteration provides more
flexibility compared to other methods. It is best suited for traditional
project management techniques.
 
 
 

It can easily be integrated to
object oriented programming languages like java.
It divides code into modules and
makes code reusable.
Modular and reusable code greatly
reduces cost and development time. Objects and its properties can be
inherited making it easy to maintain and expand.

It strengthens team interaction
and also echoes community based values. Frequent analysis and assessment validates
the project and thus reduce risks. Flexibility and capable in dealing with modification.
 

Cons

Modification could result in rise
in development cost
particularly in later stages. Requisites
are defined early,
and might change during development.

Until users see the examples of
features and functions, they may not be able to describe their needs.
 

Members of the development team
may not be familiar with the method as it is somewhat newer.
In larger systems the concept of
objects and classes and their interactions can get complicated.
 

A high level of technical and
communication skill is required for the team members.
 
 
. Absence
of proper documentation and
structure could result in introduction of risk factors. The project scope is subject
to change as
user requirements
change.

Examples

Waterfall Model

 

Spiral Model

 

(b) Describe how CASE is used to support each
phase of the SDLC.

Computer-aided systems engineering (CASE) is a technique that uses CASE tool which is a
powerful software that helps system analysts to develop and maintain
information system.

Structured
analysis and object-oriented analysis are some of the design methodologies that
a supported by CASE tools and its framework for systems development.

Functions
of a CASE Tool

Analysis
CASE analysis tools can check for incorrect specification in diagrams,
inconsistency and incompleteness.

 

Design

In this
phase CASE tools are used to design a system model by graphically creating a
model with GUI and database. Technical architecture is also designed to create
a technical blueprint of the system.

Code generation
CASE Tool also have the functionality to generate program code and
database definition code like DDL directly from documents and diagrams .

 

Documentation

At
various stages of system development life cycle case tools help to improve the
quality of generated documents. It also improves the uniformity and
completeness.

Testing:

Automatic checking speeds up the
testing process and also improves the quality.

 

3.      What is a SWOT analysis? Prepare a SWOT analysis of
your school or your employer.

SWOT
stands for strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats.

A SWOT analysis can be
done on a product, project or even a company. The main objective of doing SWOT
analysis is to avoid pursuing the goals that are not profitable and
unachievable. A SWOT analysis also examines technical, human and financial resources
of a firm.

 

Below is the SWOT analysis of my
college

 

Strength

Weakness

Knowledgeable instructors,
Quality Programs, Reasonable fees, Availability of online study materials,
Online Portal, Free Wi-Fi

Remote Location, Limited
Public Transportation,
Expensive car parking,
Strict rules for submitting assignments, Compulsory attendance

Opportunities

Threats

Co-op opportunities,
Placement in MNCs, Multi-cultural environment, Interactive classes, Well
funded Student Unions

Failing students,
Decline in funding for
higher education,
Unpredictable weather
makes commute difficult

 

4.      What is a fishbone diagram, and why would you use
one? Think of a problem you have experienced at school or work, and draw a
sample fishbone diagram with at least two levels.

 

A fishbone diagram is a tool for analysis that shows the possible causes
of a problem as an outline in graph. In many cases investigating processing
delays might reveal symptoms rather than underlying hardware problems. In those
cases a fishbone diagram is used for finding causes and effects.

When using a fishbone diagram, a main bone is drawn to
represent the main problem and sub-bones to represent the possible causes of
the main problem.

Sample
fishbone diagram of a problem that I experienced at work.

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