1. we consider the prevalence of the

1. ??2a – what is the red queen effectThe red queen effect states that organisms must constantly adapt and evolve in order to avoid extinction as they are competing with other ever changing and evolving organisms for survival. In the business domain, we see similar outcomes as companies try to out perform one another by improving products and services. The issues is that while one company might have an advantage over another, it is only temporary as the other companies will quickly evolve themselves and level the playing field. In essence, the environment is that if you move forward, so will your competitor, if you do not, you will fall behind.2b) – where does the reference to the term red queen come fromThe term is taken from the Red Queen’s race in Lewis Carroll’s Through the Looking-Glass. The Red Queen made the following statement to Alice “Now, here, you see, it takes all the running you can do, to keep in the same place”. This is similar to how, in nature, organisms have to evolve (run) in order to keep pace with the other constantly evolving organisms or face extinction.2c) – What is the relevance to security engineering?In reference to security engineering, we see the red queen effect in both the competition in-between various security service provides and also between security providers and hackers. When we consider the prevalence of the red queen effect between security providers, we see that in order to stay competitive, other than keeping up with the hackers (as we will discuss below), security providers also have to constantly provide better products and services, e.g. 24hr support, better resource efficiency, etc, to stay relevant, else the user will switch to another security provider Another area where we see the red queen effect in security engineering is the competition between security companies in general and hackers. Hackers constantly create new and more complicated means of causing harm to protected systems, security providers constantly upgrade their systems with new threat detection and prevention technologies. This creates sort of an arms race where if either the security companies or hackers stop innovating or creating new attack/defence mechanisms, they will quickly become obsolete and their technology irrelevant.2d) –  ??2e) – ?? Idk how it relates to the red queen principle thoughThe Peter principle in a management theory stating that “In a Hierarchy, every employee tends to rise to his level of incompetence”, the generalised version is “Anything that works will be used in more challenging applications until it fails”. This is when a company selects a candidate for a position based on his performance in his current role, rather than the abilities relevant to the intended role. As students, we see the real life application in group projects, where the defacto chosen “leader” of the group might have strong technical skills but lack many of the communication and motivating qualities that are desirable in a leader, thus causing the project to fail or the environment to become increasingly toxic. 3) I dont understand the damn question4a) Path dependence means that where we go next is based on not only where we are now but also where we have been. This is where the set of decisions that one is currently facing is limited by the decisions that one have made in the past or by the events one has experienced, regardless if past events are relevant. Past dependance holds even if newer or more efficient products or practices are available. The main reason being path dependence is because it is easier or more cost effective to continue along a set path than to create a new one.

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