4. in the table below: Table 4.1: Arduino
Components are simple
structure mass of all scheme / robot. To create your robot effective and to provide
the preferred yield the components should be elected intelligently. The resources
used in this robot are chosen on the basis of their effectiveness and range.
Here is the list of the following constituents we have used:
12V DC Motor.
L298N Motor Driver.
IR Proximity sensor.
12V DC Water Pump.
12V DC Motor:
12V DC Motor with Shaft
L298N Motor Driver:
The L298 is a united
solid circuit in a 15- lead Multiwatt and PowerSO20 packages. It is a high voltage,
high flow double full-connect driver drawn to recognize typical TTL logic
levels and drive inductive loads, for example, transmissions, solenoids, DC and
volunteering machines. Two empower efforts are given to empower the device
freely of the info signals. The manufacturers of the lower transistors of each frame
are linked together and the linking outer terminal can be used for the link of
an outer detecting resistor. An extra source input is given with the goal that
the rationality works at bring down voltage.
Motor Driver L298N
Arduino UNO is a
microcontroller with board based on ATmega328P. It has 6 analog I/O pins and 14
digital I/O pins. Out of 14 I/O pins 6 digital I/O pins can be used as PWM. It
has 16 MHz quartz crystal. Its functional voltage is 6V – 20V (restricted) or
5V – 12V (suggested).
Arduino UNO Board
Other Specs are given in
the table below:
4.1: Arduino UNO Specs
An IR flame
sensor unit comprises an IR receiver, capacitor, resistor, variable resistor
(potentiometer) and LM393. It is clever to notice infrared light which ranges
between 700nm – 1000nm. This unit adapts the infrared light into current
changes. And we can modify its sensitivity over Potentiometer (Variable
resistor). Its exposure angle is 60 degrees.
Flame sensor (labeling)
sensor interface with Arduino is reasonably simple. First connect the Vcc pin
of the sensor with Arduino 5V pin. Second connect the GND pin of sensor with
the Arduino GND pin. Now lastly connect the D0 pin of sensor with the Arduino
digital I/O pin (let it be pin 7) as displayed in the fig beneath.
Flame sensor interference with Arduino
The voltage that
the sensor yields deviates according to the smoke/gas level that occurs in the air.
The sensor yields a voltage that is proportional to the concentration of
In additional verses, the
association between voltage and gas concentration is the following:
1. The greater the gas
concentration, the greater the yield voltage
2. The lower the gas
concentration, the lower the yield voltage
Working Mechanism of MQ – 2 Sensor
The main benefit
of smoke detection above thermal detection is that it doesn’t need line-of-sight
to the fire. In additional verses, if a fire is at the back of a mountain, it
can be marked by the smoke column it will finally create. Extra benefit of
smoke detection is that, in the situation of individuals in a watch tower, the
range of discovery can be up to 30km. Neither thermal sensors nor CCTV-based
smoke detection can so far reach this range.
There are two important
drawbacks of smoke exposure. The first is that in order for a fire to create a visible
smoke column, the fire himself wants to be reasonably big. Big fires mean big
resources are vital to fight it, and in many situations, the fire is already
out of control before it is noticed. The second important drawback is that
smoke can only be noticed in specific visibility situations. Darkness, fog,
smoke, rain, and wind all interfere with the capacity for a smoke column to be recognized.
These drawbacks apply to all kinds of smoke exposure, whether human or automatic.
IR Proximity Sensor:
means Infrared. In additional verses, it is a wavelength of light which human
eye cannot see but camera can see it.
IR Proximity Sensor
sensor comprises IR LED and Photodiode. It is mainly used for obstacle exposure.
The IR LED transfers light when an obstacle exists the light returns after striking
and photodiode obtains it. Hence Obstacle is sensed.
Working of IR proximity Sensor
HC-SR04 ultrasonic sensor uses sonar to calculate distance to an object like
bats do. It suggests brilliant non-contact range exposure with high correctness
and steady analyses in an easy-to-use bundle. From 1ft to 13ft. Its process is
not affected by sunlight or black solid. It comes complete with ultrasonic spreader
and receiver unit.
distance measurement the TRIGGER pin of HC-SR04 must receive a beat of high
(5V) for at least 10 micro sec, this will initiate the sensor will transfer out
8 cycle of ultrasonic burst at 40kHz and wait for the echoed ultrasonic burst.
When the sensor discovered ultrasonic from receiver, it will fixed the Echo pin
to high (5V) and delay for a period (width) which proportion to distance. To find
the distance, measure the width (Ton) of Echo pin.
= Thickness of Echo beat, in micro second
in cm = Time / 58
in inch = Time / 148
It is a unit that
measure the gap between the sensor and the object with the help of sound wave.
It measures the gap by sending out a sound wave at a specific frequency and
wait until the sound wave bounce back. Now it will record the elapsed time
between the generated sound wave and the bounce back of the sound wave. Then it
will calculate the gap between the object and sensor. Equation is given below:
Working Mechanism of Ultrasonic Sensor
12V DC Water Pump:
on DC 12V and 1.1A. Its power is 20 Watt. It has a capacity of throwing 10L/min
with a height of 5m (16ft). It has following features:
Noise (< 38dB). v Working life (approx. 40,000 hours). v Stator and circuit board sealed by epoxy resin. v Permanent magnetic rotor. v Brushless. Fig. 12V DC Water Pump 4.9. Servo Motor: Tiny and lightweight with high output power. Servo can rotate approximately 180 degrees (90 in each direction), and works just like the standard kinds but smaller. You can use any servo code, hardware or library to control these servos. Good for beginners who want to make stuff move without building a motor controller with feedback & gear box, especially since it will fit in small places. It comes with a 3 horns (arms) and hardware. Fig. Mini Servo Motor (Sg90) Table 4.2 Specs of Servo Motor Fig. Dimensions of Servo Motor The Working mechanism of the Servo Motor can be observed from the fig below: Fig. Working Mechanism of Mini Servo Motor