Stephen Krashen (1981), identifies two English as
additional language processes: Language acquisition and Language learning.
Language acquisition refers to the way pupils acquire language by exposure and
immersion in a classroom environment. This is enhanced by valuable interactions
with staff and peers in situations where students feel safe and risk-free.
learning results from the formal teaching process in which language is taught, referring
to specific structures and knowledge of the language, eg grammar and phonics.
Krashen identifies Acquisition learning as a subconscious process, and the
Language learning process as a conscious process.