Stephen Krashen (1981), identifies two English as
additional language processes: Language acquisition and Language learning.

Language acquisition refers to the way pupils acquire language by exposure and
immersion in a classroom environment. This is enhanced by valuable interactions
with staff and peers in situations where students feel safe and risk-free.

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Language
learning results from the formal teaching process in which language is taught, referring
to specific structures and knowledge of the language, eg grammar and phonics.

Krashen identifies Acquisition learning as a subconscious process, and the
Language learning process as a conscious process.