566 Multiple Choice Questions with Answers on Thinking and Problem Solving – Part 5

(b) Social

(c) Flexible

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(d) Complex

402. Some psychologists suggested that the speed with which cognitive units or knowledge can be retrieved from long term memory im­proves with age, making it possible for older children to integrate more old and new in­formation during the process that is called:

(a) Working memory

(b) Short-term memory (STM)

(c) Rote memory

(d) Long-term memory (LTM)

403. Short-term memory (STM) lasts about:

(a) 20 Seconds

(b) 30 Seconds

(c) 15 Seconds

(d) 10 Seconds

404. A larger working-memory capacity makes it possible to solve more complex problems. With the development, there is:

(a) Growth in the ability to hold information in working memory.

(b) Complexity in the ability to hold information in working memory.

(c) Understanding of concepts and syllables

(d) Imitation of behaviour of parents

405. Symbolic concepts become more readily available for use in:

(a) Dreams

(b) Imagination

(c) Learning

(d) Thought

406. Concepts are not static unit of knowledge. These are:

(a) Dynamic and constantly changing

(b) Complex and developing

(c) Flexible and simple

(d) Highly convertible

407. Children’s knowledge about memory processes is called:

(a) Metamemory

(b) Learning

(c) Strategy

(d) Inference

408. Which term refers to the mental activities involved in the acquisition, processing, organization and use of knowledge?

(a) Emotion

(b) Cognition

(c) Feeling

(d) Imagination

409. In which type of memory, the materials are stored for later retrieval?

(a) Rote memory

(b) Sensory memory

(c) Short-term memory (STM)

(d) Long-term memory (LTM)

410. With development, children’s memory relies more heavily on:

(a) Imagination

(b) Symbolic concepts

(c) Gestures

(d) Experiences

411. The current Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test is descended from the test developed by Binet and Simon:

(a) In early 1900s

(b) In early 1800s

(c) In early 1600s

(d) In early 1700s

412. The first intelligence test was designed by two French men and they are:

(a) Binet and Simon

(b) Allen and Honzik

(c) Anastasi and Forguson

(d) Weschlar and Fechner

413. The capacity to learn and adapt to the requirements for survival in one’s culture is called:

(a) Intelligence

(b) Memory

(c) Emotion

(d) Learning

414. Who described the composition of intelli­gence in terms of intellectual breadth and intellectual attitude?

(a) J.B. Watson

(b) W. Kohler

(c) Jean Piaget

(d) Jensen

415. Who told that mental functioning involves two types of abilities – an associative ability and a cognitive ability?

(a) J. B. Watson

(b) A. R. Jensen

(c) Wilhelm Wundt

(d) E. B. Titchener

416. Who viewed intelligence as an attribute of the person like any other attribute such as blood pressure and temperature etc?

(a) R. B. Cattell

(b) E. L. Thorndike

(c) A. R. Jensen

(d) Carl Spearman

417. Who postulated the two-factor theory of intelligence?

(a) J.B. Watson

(b) R. B. Cattell

(c) E. L. Thorndike

(d) A.R.Jensen

418. A learning theorist had told about three levels of intelligence in his theory. These are-Abstract level of intelligence, Mecha­nical level of intelligence and social level of intelligence. Who was he?

(a) R. B. Cattell

(b) Carl Spearman

(c) A. R. Jensen

(d) E. L. Thorndike

419. The first systematic theory on the nature of intelligence was developed by:

(a) A. R. Jensen

(b) E. L. Throndike

(c) Carl Spearman

(d) R. B. Cattell

420. Who told about the “general factor” and “specific factor of intelligence”?

(a) Carl Spearman

(b) A. R. Jensen

(c) E. L. Thorndike

(d) R. B. Cattell

421. According to Spearman, the capacity for activities like reading a novel, speaking fluently, planning the train route from a map etc. involve:

(a) The manifestation of general intelligence in greater degree

(b) The manifestation of specific intelli­gence in greater degree

(c) Abstract level of intelligence

(d) Primary mental ability

422. According to Cattell, the capacity required for learning and problem solving inde­pendent of education and experience is known as:

(a) Fluid intelligence (gf)

(b) Crystalized intelligence (ge)

(c) Specific factor (S)

(d) General factor (G)

423. The first Binet-Simon scale of intelligence was constructed in the year:

(a) 1908

(b) 1905

(c) 1903

(d) 1900

424. Who introduced the term “Intelligence Quo­tient” (I.Q.)?

(a) A. R. Jensen

(b) E. L. Thorndike

(c) R. B. Cattell

(d) William Stern

426. If a child’s chronological age (CA) is 8 years and his mental age is 10 years, his I.Q. will b:

(a) 125

(b) 110

(c) 140

(d) 190

427. A child of average intelligence at any level will have an I.Q. of:

(a) 120

(b) 140

(c) 130

(d) 100

428. The term “intelligence” is derived from a Latin word, framed by Cicero to translate a Greek word used by Aristotle to include:

(a) All cognitive processes

(b) All effective processes

(c) Specific cognitive processes

(d) Specific effective processes

429. The simultaneous existence of two opposed emotions, motivations or attitudes e.g. love- hate, approach-avoidance is called:

(a) Ambivalence

(b) Narcissism

(c) Rationalization

(d) Instinct

430. The proverbial story of milkmaid’s daughter is an illustration of:

(a) Dream

(b) Creative Thinking

(c) Fantasy

(d) Divergent Thinking

(e) Convergent Thinking

431. An organised imagination around a certain theme or extent or problem is known as:

(a) Fantasy

(b) Dream

(c) Image

(d) Creative Thinking

(e) Autistic Thinking

432. If we sit down and start visualising about heaven, the pleasures there in, this would be:

(a) Fantasy

(b) Dream

(c) Day-dreaming

(d) Imagination

(e) Concept formation

433. If we start visualising that we will go to heaven and start experiencing all the pleasures therein, this would be:

(a) Dream

(b) Fantasy

(c) Day-dreaming

(d) Imagination

(e) None of the above

434. The difference between day-dreams and fantasy is that the former are much more organised and relate to the:

(a) Conscious mental activity of the indi­vidual

(b) Unconscious mental activity of the indi­vidual

(c) Subconscious mental activity of the individual

(d) Both conscious and unconscious acti­vities of the individual

(e) Both subconscious and unconscious activities of the individual

435. The capacity for day-dreaming depends on the development of the concept of:

(a) “Ego” or “I”

(b) “Super Ego”

(c) “Id”

(d) “Libido”

(e) “Oedipus Complex”

436. The temporary ego-centred holidays from reality is known as:

(a) Fantasy

(b) Day-dreams

(c) Images

(d) Concepts

(e) Precepts

437. Delusions can be classified into two types and these are:

(a) Grandeur and persecution

(b) Direct and indirect

(c) Systematic and unsystematic

(d) Transitory and permanent

(e) None of the above

438. Some delusions are there which are brief or fleeting. These are called:

(a) Transient Delusions

(b) Delusion of Grandeur

(c) Chronic Delusions

(d) Delusion of Persecution

(e) None of the above

439. Some delusions are there which are very elaborate and many completely engulf the individual. These are called:

(a) Delusion of Grandeur

(b) Delusion of Persecution

(c) Chronic or Systematic Delusions

(d) Transient Delusions

(e) None of the above

440. “Sometimes an individual feet’s that he is being harassed, persecuted and plotted against by everyone. He is obsessed with the idea that everybody around is out to get him, harm him, kill him and he is a victim of domestic, national and international conspiracies”. This is an example of:

(a) Delusion of Grandeur

(b) Delusion of Persecution

(c) Transient Delusions

(d) Systematic Delusions

(e) None of the above

441. The ideas which were interfering with the solution of the problem tend to fade in:

(a) Evaluation Period

(b) Incubation Period

(c) Verification Period

(d) Preparation Period

(e) None of the above

442. The last stage of Creative Thinking is:

(a) Verification

(b) Evaluation

(c) Incubation

(d) Preparation

(e) None of the above

443. In one kind of delusion, the person becomes a millionaire by a twist of the mind. He becomes the ruler of the universe, or a great personage endowed with divine powers. What delusion is it?

(a) Delusion of Persecution

(b) Transient Delusion

(c) Delusion of Grandeur

(d) Hypochondriacal Delusion

(e) None of the above

444. Hypochondriacal delusions are concerned with an excessive preoccupation with imaginary:

(a) Physical diseases

(b) Mental diseases

(c) Psychoses

(d) Physical or Mental disease

(e) None of the above

445. Self-condemnatory delusions generally ref­lect a need for:

(a) Punishment

(b) Reward

(c) Reinforcement

(d) Affection

(e) None of the above

446. “Ideas of reference” often supplement:

(a) Delusions of Grandeur

(b) Hypochondriacal Delusion

(c) Delusions of Persecution

(d) Transient Delusion

(e) None of the above

447. Hypochondriasis is usually interpreted as an escape from life difficulties:

(a) By a flight into unconscious stage

(b) By a flight into dream

(c) By a flight into disease

(d) By a flight into coma stage

(e) None of the above

448. Jean Piaget was a/an:

(a) Swiss Psychologist

(b) English Psychologist

(c) Russian Psychologist

(d) German Psychologist

(e) French Psychologist

449. At the age of 10, Jean Piget published his first article on a rare albino sparrow in a natural history journal in:

(a) 1908

(b) 1907

(c) 1912

(d) 1916

(e) 1917

450. Jean Piaget used the term “Schemata” to refer to the cognitive structures underlying organized patterns of:

(a) Concept

(b) Behaviour

(c) Experience

(d) Temperament

(e) None of the above

451. Piaget’s studies revealed that there is a gradual shift with age and experience from mental activities based on overt behaviour to symbolically represented “Schemata”. In older children, schemata are more inter­nalized and more mental. He called these mental equivalents of behavioural schemata as:

(a) Organizations

(b) Operations

(c) Adaptations

(d) Assimilations

(e) Accommodations

452. In which developmental stage, according to Piaget, the child generally comes to see the relation between goals and the means to attain those goals?

(a) Preoperational Period

(b) Formal operation Period

(c) Sensorimotor Period

(d) Concrete Operation Period

(e) None of the above

453. In which development stage, according to Piaget, “Object permanence” develops?

(a) Concrete operation period

(b) Sensorimotor Period

(c) Preoperational Period

(d) Formal operation period

(e) None of the above

454. Piaget speaks of the “plane of action” in the sensorimotor phase preceding and being essential for the later development of the:

(a) Concept formation

(b) Plane of thought

(c) Image

(d) Personality

(e) None of the above

455. In which substage of Sensorimotor Period, the infant repeats and modifies actions which initially may have occurred by chance and which the child finds to be satisfying or pleasurable?

(a) Tertiary circular Reaction

(b) Secondary circular Reaction

(c) Primary circular Reaction

(d) Coordination of secondary schemata

(e) None of the above

456. Children actively use trial-and-error methods to learn more about the properties of objects in the developmental stage of:

(a) Tertiary circular Reactions

(b) Secondary circular Reactions

(c) Primary circular Reactions

(d) Coordination of secondary schemata

(e) None of the above

457. The major characteristic of the preope­rational phase is the development of systems of representation, such as language, which Piaget calls the:

(a) Communicative cues

(b) Symbolic function

(c) Implicit function

(d) Explicit function

(e) None of the above

458. A psychologist asked a four-year-old child- :

:”Do you have a brother?”

: ‘Yes’

: “What’s his name?”: “Amit”.

: “Does Sunny have a brother?”

“No”.

This is one of the illustrations of:

(a) Conservation

(b) Transformation

(c) Irreversibility

(d) Assimilation

(e) Accommodation

459. The child’s habit of attending to one salient aspect of a problem neglecting other ones, thus distorting reasoning is known as:

(a) Egocentrism

(b) Transductive reasoning

(c) Centration

(d) Syncretism

(e) None of the above

460. The child’s cognitive structure reaches maturity during:

(a) Sensorimotor period

(b) Preoperational period

(c) The period of formal operations

(d) Concrete operational period

(e) None of the above

461. When we make use of many experiences and examples for arriving at a generalized prin­ciple or conclusion, it is known as:

(a) Deductive Reasoning

(b) Divergent Thinking

(c) Convergent Thinking

(d) Inductive Reasoning

(e) None of the above

462. When we just start completely agreeing with some deduced results or principles and try to apply to particular cases, it is known as:

(a) Deductive Reasoning

(b) Inductive Reasoning

(c) Divergent Thinking

(d) Convergent Thinking

(e) None of the above

463. Some people have almost photographic visual imagery. They only look at some­thing and recall what they have seen in detail. Such imagery is called:

(a) Synesthesia

(b) Memory Image

(c) Eidetic Imagery

(d) Verbal Imagination

(e) None of the above

464. One school of psychology attempted to show that thinking without the sensory images is possible. What is the name of this school?

(a) Behaviouristic school

(b) Psychoanalysis

(c) Woozberg school

(d) Gestalt school

(e) None of the above

465. The concept of an automobile is:

(a) A conjuctive concept

(b) A disjunctive concept

(c) A haphazard concept

(d) An image

(e) None of the above

466. A disjunctive concept separates objects into a class by reason of their possession of:

(a) Any two characteristics

(b) Any one characteristic

(c) Any three characteristics

(d) Any four characteristics

(e) Any five characteristics

467. The concepts which refer to relationship between two elements in a situation is known as:

(a) Conjunctive Concepts

(b) Disjunctive concepts

(c) Relational Concepts

(d) Simple concepts

(e) None of the above

468. Many studies in thinking have been devoted to find out how we learn or form concepts. Such studies are popularly known as:

(a) Study of symbols

(b) Concept attainment studies

(c) Study on Images

(d) Language Development Studies

(e) None of the above

469. In which strategy in concept learning, the “S” immediately jumps to the conclusion?

(a) Wholist approach

(b) Partist approach

(c) Conservative appraoch

(d) Gambler’s approach

(e) None of the above

470. In “Conservative Approach”, in the stra­tegies in concept formation, the “S” (Sub­ject) proceeds very cautiously and syste­matically concentrating on:

(a) One feature of the card at a time

(b) Two features of the card at a time

(c) Three features of the card at a time

(d) Four features of the card at a time

(e) None of the above

471. According to Heidbreder, the ‘number’ and ‘form’ concepts are more difficult to form that concept of:

(a) Concrete objects

(b) Words

(c) Images

(d) Syllables

(e) None of the above

472. “Problem Solving” and “Creative Thinking” are two main forms of:

(a) Autistic Thinking

(b) Directed Thinking

(c) Image

(d) Realistic Thinking

(e) None of the above

473. Psychologists believe that people have ways of thinking in their peculiar and more or less in a fixed way. They call these as:

(a) Thinking sets

(b) Concepts

(c) Images

(d) Fantasies

(e) None of the above

474. A German Psychologist, Karl Duncker, first proposed the concept of:

(a) Subvocal talking

(b) Functional Fixity

(c) Realistic Thinking

(d) Implicit Speech

(e) None of the above

475. We have a tendency to make normal use of certain household articles, but it is difficult for us to put them to some novel use. Psychologists have named this tendency as:

(a) Concept formation

(b) Abstraction

(c) Functional fixedness

(d) Generalisation

(e) Differentiation

476. “Functional Fixedness” is an important factor in:

(a) Thinking

(b) Imagination

(c) Problem Solving

(d) Day Dreaming

(e) None of the above

477. Ordinary people can distinguish between 8 (eight) vowel sounds and 12 to 15 conso­nantal sounds approximately. Such sounds are called:

(a) Phonems

(b) Morhpems

(c) Concepts

(d) Slurring

(e) None of the above

478. English language makes use of:

(a) 55 phonems approximately

(b) 45 phonems approximately

(c) 65 phonems approximately

(d) 35 phonems approximately

(e) 15 phonems approximately

479. Knowledge of ‘phonems’ is essential for comprehending a language, but the phonems themselves do not form a unit of perception of a language. The reason is that we never hear them one at a time. What we actually hear is two or three phonemes combined into a syllable called:

(a) A concept

(b) An image

(c) A phonem

(d) A morphem

(e) None of the above

480. The “clause or phrase” is an unit of perception of:

(a) Language

(b) Thought

(c) Concept

(d) Image

(e) None of the above

481. The range between the loudest and the weakest sounds that an individual can make is called:

(a) Pitch range

(b) Dynamic range

(c) Auditory range

(d) Sensory range

(e) None of the above

482. According to the operant conditioning model, the most important aspect of language learning is the:

(a) Reinforcement which the learner recei­ves from another person

(b) Punishment given by the master learner

(c) Reward received by the language teacher

(d) Reward provided by the experimenter

(e) None of the above

483. The “Information Processing Theory” ex­plains language learning by analogy with:

(a) EEG model

(b) Computer model

(c) Animal model

(d) Polygraph model

(e) None of the above

484. The information processing theory empha­sises the contribution of the child rather than the role of reinforcement as emphasized by the:

(a) Classical conditioning model

(b) Operant model

(c) Trial-and-Error model

(d) Insightful learning model

(e) None of the above

485. In 1860s, a French physician Paul Broca showed that a lower part of the frontal lobe, a short distance above and in the front of the left ear was mainly responsible for the:

(a) Control of spoken language

(b) Concept formation

(c) Formation and development of images

(d) Creativity

(e) None of the above

486. The language region in the lower frontal lobe is known as:

(a) Wernicke’s Area

(b) Broca’s Area

(c) Morgan’s Area

(d) Sherrington’ Area

(e) None of the above

487. The temporal-lobe language region is known as:

(a) Wernicke’s Area

(b) Broca’s Area

(c) Morgan’s Area

(d) Sherrington’ area

(e) None of the above

488. The general term for speech disorder due to brain damage is known as:

(a) Astasia-abasia

(b) Aphasia

(c) Aphonia

(d) Paresthesia

(e) Anesthesia

489. Wernicke’s area is connected to Broca’s area by a bundle of nerve fibres called the:

(a) Rubrospinal Tract

(b) Middle Temporal Gyrus

(c) Arculate fasciulus

(d) Lateral Sulcus

(e) None of the above

490. Patients with damage to the angular gyrus may be able to communicate with and understand speech, but they cannot read. They have what is called:

(a) Aphonia

(b) Dyslexia

(c) Aphasia

(d) Paresthesia

(e) None of the above

491. Decibel (dB) is the unit to measure the:

(a) Light movement

(b) Intelligence

(c) Intensity of sound pressures

(d) Sensation

(e) Vision

492. Woodworth has called thinking as:

(a) Mental Exploration

(b) Problem solving behaviour

(c) Covert manipulation

(d) Subvocal Talking

(e) None of the above

493. In reasoning, the association begins with a problem and end with a/an:

(a) Problem

(b) Solution

(c) Image

(d) Dream

(e) None of the above

494. “Mental Trial and Error” is otherwise known as:

(a) Perception

(b) Learning

(c) Thinking

(d) Sensation

(e) None of the above

495. The “Central Theory of Thinking” holds that we think only with the help of our:

(a) Brain

(b) Central Nervous system

(c) Peripheral Nervous system

(d) Spinal Cord

(e) None of the above

496. The “Central theory of thinking,” which holds that we think with our brain only, was advanced by the:

(a) Behaviourists

(b) Structuralists

(c) Functionalists

(d) Gestalt Psychologists

(e) None of the above

497. “Peripheral theory of thinking” is otherwise known as:

(a) Affective approach of Thinking

(b) Cognitive approach of Thinking

(c) Motor Theory of Thinking

(d) Stimulus Response Theory of Thinking

(e) None of the above

498. J. B. Watson, the founding father of Be­haviourism, held that thinking is nothing but:

(a) Subvocal talking

(b) Silent talking

(c) Meditation

(d) Yoga

(e) None of the above

499. Experimental Evidences indicate that thin­king is accompanied by minute muscular contractions occurring during thought are called:

(a) Explicit speech

(b) Spasm

(c) Implicit speech

(d) Muscle contractions

(e) None of the above

500. Who viewed that thinking is the orga­nization and reorganization of current lear­ning in the present circumstances?

(a) G. W. Allport (1924)

(b) Vinacke (1968)

(c) L. F. Shaffer (1936)

(d) T.G.Andrews (1948)

(e) Hanfmann and Kasanin (1937)

Answers

401. (a) 402. (a) 403. (b) 404. (a) 405. (d) 406. (a) 407. (a) 408. (b) 409. (d) 410. (b) 411. (a) 412. (a) 413. (a) 414. (d) 415. (b) 416. (c) 417. (b) 418. (d) 419. (c) 420. (a) 421. (a) 422. (a) 423. (b) 424. (d) 425. (a) 426. (a) 427. (d) 428. (a) 429. (a) 430. (c) 431. (a) 432. (a) 433. (c) 434. (a) 435. (a) 436. (b) 437. (a) 438. (a) 439. (c) 440. (b) 441. (b) 442. (a) 443. (c) 444. (d) 445. (a) 446. (c) 447. (c) 448. (a) 449. (b) 450. (b) 451. (b) 452. (c) 453. (b) 454. (b) 455. (c) 456. (a) 457. (b) 458. (c) 459. (c) 460. (c) 461. (d) 462. (a) 463. (c) 464. (c) 465. (a) 466. (b) 467. (c) 468. (b) 469. (d) 470. (a) 471. (a) 472. (d) 473. (a) 474. (b) 475. (c) 476. (e) 477. (a) 478. (b) 479. (d) 480. (a) 481. (b) 482. (a) 483. (b) 484. (b) 485. (a) 486. (b) 487. (a) 488. (b) 489. (c) 490. (b) 491. (c) 492. (a) 493. (b) 494. (c) 495. (a) 496. (d) 497. (c) 498. (a) 499. (c) 500. (b)

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