In society, media often
encounters negative social effects and helps to reproduce a number of social
problems (Klapper, 1960). Kellner (1989) points out that among one of the
first social theorists at the Frankfurt School, in their theories of the
culture and industries, critics of mass culture view the media stand as a
leisure activity center. In addition, media is an important agent of socialization,
a mediator of political reality and should be seen as major institutions of
contemporary societies with a variety of economic, political, cultural and
social effects. Media constructs normative reality of people in society which
means media supports the norm, suppresses disagreement and undermines
resistance and well as removing issues from the public agenda (Khanday et al.,
2014). Kuo and
Nakamura (2005) point out that media content is regarded as reflective of
society; a common belief is that the media conveys the dominant elite
ideologies of a social community. Overall, societal thoughts and actions are influenced
by media. In other words, people are affected by what the media chooses to let
them hear, see and read.