Abstract is warming resulting when the atmosphere traps


It is well known global warming is a worldwide problem that
is affecting everyone, global warming occurs due to the increase of temperature
on the earth’s surface due to emission of greenhouse gases. But notably the
biggest contributors to the emission of these greenhouse gases are people
through pollution by industries. The greenhouse gases exhumed absorb heat
energy released from the earth surface and form a blanket that traps the heat
causing the warming. Global warming has adverse negative effects on countries
and in particular Africa where we see negative effects such as famines causing
malnutrition and how it is causing a decline in agricultural sector here we
also see some of the adaptive measures taken by some of the African areas such
as the African Sahel such as use of hardy crops and selective keeping of livestock
in areas where rainfall declines

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Global warming is the gradual increase in the average
temperature on planet earth over time. The average temperature has been on the
rise due to natural and artificial factors and these changes in temperature are
being felt worldwide and are now affecting our daily lives.in this paper .among
the many places affected Africa has been impacted  negatively 
by global warming and having implications on sensitive areas such as
agriculture in this paper we look at global warming ,some of its effects on
african countries, and some of the adaptations taken towards it.

What is global warming?

Global warming occurs when there is rapid and quick
temperature increase in an unusual manner on the earth surface. It has occurred
over the past century mostly due to the greenhouse gases that are released when
fossil fuels are burnt by people, in between 1906 and 2005, the global average temperature
has risen from 0.6 to 0.9 degrees Celsius and the temperature increase rate has
nearly doubled up in the last 50 years and still temperatures are certain to go
up even further (H Riebeek .2010.)

Causes of global warming

The continuous trend of the current global warming occurring
has been agreed by most of the climate scientists to be caused by human
expansion of the greenhouse effect( ipcc fifth assessment report 2014)-which is
warming resulting when the atmosphere traps heat radiating towards space from
the earth

More definitively sunlight that reaches the surface are usually
either reflected or absorbed by the earths surface the planet releases some of
the absorbed energy as infrared radiation that causes the heat the greenhouse
gases absorb this energy preventing its released to space therefore creating a
blanket that making the earth warmer(https://19january2017snapshot.epa.gov/climate-change-science/causes-climate-change_.html#Greenhouse)

Natural factors such as volcanic eruptions contribute to global
warming in that such eruptions emit gases such as co2 but the most climatic changes
occur by the emission of sulfur species that react with h2o to form aerosols
that serve as surfaces for chemical reactions that destroy the stratospheric
ozone causing lee uv absorption into the atmosphere and modifying the aerosol heating
Robock Department of Environmental Sciences Rutgers University New
Brunswick, New Jersey)

 these gases that contribute
to the greenhouse effect include

carbon dioxide –human activities such as deforestation land
use changes and natural processes such as respiration and volcanic
eruptions  are ways which carbon dioxide
is released to the atmosphere

methane-  it is a far
more active than carbon dioxide as a greenhouse gas in the molecule for
molecule basis it is a hydrocarbon gas produced by human activities(this
includes decomposition of wastes in land cliffs and agriculture) and natural

Nitrous oxide – a greenhouse gas that is produced by practices
of soil cultivation mostly through the use of organic and commercial fertilizers,
biomass burning production of nitric acid and combustion of fossil fuel

Chlorofluorocarbons – they are greenhouse gases that are
synthetic compounds that are entirely of industrial origin but are largely
regulated by international agreement for their contribution to the destruction
of the ozone layer

Water vapor-the most abundant greenhouse gas which acts as a
feedback whereby it increases as the earth’s atmosphere warms

Human activities on earth are also changing the natural greenhouse.
Concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide has increased over the last century
due to burning of fuel fossils like coil and oil

Effects of global warming in Africa

Several impacts of global warming are currently seen in some
African countries i.e.  Warming is
currently seen to diminish productivity of Lake Tanganyika in east Africa
records of carbon isotopes in the sediments show about 20 percent decrease in
production that also implies about 30 percent decrease in fish yields

Global warming has also led to an indefinite change in the
climate that cause devastating famines malnutrition that comes as a result of
famine has become a worldwide crisis that according to the World Health Organization,
states that approximately 800 million people are undernourished with almost
half of these people living in Africa(who)

Also global warming implications on temperature rise has
also caused rise to infectious diseases 
as infectious agents such as viruses protozoa and bacteria with their
various vector organisms such as(mosquitos ticks and sandflies have their
survival rates and reproduction being strongly affected by temperature
fluctuations(gubler d j)(kovats r s) as seen in Kenya transmission of malaria has
been associated with anomalies of temperature increase

Global warming rise has also shown possibilities of risks of
civil war in Africa as seen how “Temperature variables are strongly related to
conflict incidence over our historical panel, with a 1 °C increase in
temperature in our preferred specification leading to a 4.5% increase in civil
war in the same year and a 0.9% increase in conflict incidence in the next year
(model 1 in Table 1). Relative to the 11.0% of country-years that historically
experience conflict in our panel, such a 1 °C warming represents a remarkable
49% relative increase in the incidence of civil war.” From 9warming increases
risk of civil war in Africa

Global warming also has adverse effects in the agricultural sector
in Africa. Through a study that uses ricardian approach that is used to measure
  the determinants of farm net revenues,
including climate, through an econometric analysis of cross-sectional data
(Mendelsohn, Nordhaus, and Shaw 1994) where 11 African countries and in the
results it was found that there are different 
effects on irrigated crops and dry land crops by warmer temperatures in
that revenue falls at an average of $27 per hectare per 1° Celsius increase in
temperature for dry land crops while irrigated crop revenue increases at an
average of $30 per hectare per 1° Celsius  even though” Temperature has a muted effect on
irrigated crops, partially because irrigation buffers the crops from rainfall
shortages and partially because irrigated crops are currently planted in
relatively cool locations in Africa. “it has also found that livestock is more
sensitive to temperature than crops. The temperature elasticity for livestock
was found to be -5.4 that even if many livestock can survive in hot areas that the
most profitable livestock(beef) are limited to areas such as the Mediterranean
and south Africa which are the cool regions as warmer temperatures would drive
these profitable beef cattle out of Africa.

Adaptive measures

In areas such as the African Sahel measures have been taken
which are mitigation and adaptation strategies, mitigation that are measures to
reduce the current process of climate change can be grouped into two according
to swart et al 2003 which involve technological solutions and the other being
changes in societal organization or individual behavior

In this case mitigation involves two purposes that are
reduction of greenhouse gas  from the
various sources and enhancing carbon” sink” in reduction of greenhouse gases emphasizes
cutbacks in combustion of fossil fuels through usage of alternative clean
energy sources particularly solar power. Carbon sink enhancement emphasizes on
forest advancements in forestry programs to discourage deforestation and
encourage afforestation in marginal areas (adensina et al)

Adaption methods are utilized to enable the community to be
able to cope with the impacts of the climate change which involve planting maturing
crops ,use of hardy crops and selective keeping of livestock in areas where
rainfall declined

In the Sahel the local farmers are known to conserve carbon
in soils by using zero tiling practices in planting and other soil management
techniques (s chafer 1989;osunade 1994)

Also in the Sahel, the local farmers have come up with
warming systems that has reduced vulnerability to climate change through
prediction or forecast of the event by (ajibade and shokemi)

Pastoralists also have adaptations that include emergency
fodder in times of drought,mukti species composition of herds to survive
extreme climate and  culling of weak
livestock for food during drought periods from (oba 1997)it is also seen that
pastoralists change from cattle (bos) to sheep(capra) and goat(capra) husbandry
as feeding requirements of the latter is less than the formers





In conclusion it is evident that global warming
is a very serious issue that requires a lot of international attention.at the
rate of climate change the world might become a hostile environment to live in some
years to come .measures must be taken to curb global warming such as enforcing
afforestation policies, avoiding pollution and hindrance of industries in
burning fossil oil ,therefore other alternative sources should be used such as
solar power. Stopping the production of greenhouse gases should be made a
priority worldwide.