Abstract: formal language. If we go through the

 

  Abstract:

It is very difficult
thing to study about Balti tens marker because there are little work done on
Balti language because it is not a documented language. The research carried
out to find out the tense marker differences between Balti and English
languages .In this study the comparative study of English and Balti languages
have been done regarding tense marker. The tense marker in both languages have
been explored. Also study about sentence structure of both languages. Differentiate
inflections and the auxiliaries in both languages. Which language follows the
SVO pattern and which language follows the SOV pattern. In the end the research
has discussed the results and the findings of collected data and presented them
in the last.

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Introduction:

English Language is
anxious. We comprehend the awful want of English. English being the global
Language possesses a lot of significance and status. English is spoken at large
round the world. Being an international language an individual in particular
must speak and use it in the everyday work while companies, administrations at
large keep in touch with the language and make it official. No doubt the using
of international language perceives a great zeal and zest among the employees
and one can keep pace with the fast grooming world. English Language is mostly
used all over the world and many countries have adopted this as official language.
Not only this but also countries like Pakistan and many others have kept this
language official language and formal language. If we go through the historical
records, we come across many countries where this has become a permanent way of
formal writing. Here we should realize this thing that ignorance to English
language will cause a great troublesome or send us a decade back. On the other
side understanding that language making a better output we will move further
with a great pace.

The history of Baltistan is full of magnificent moments and memorable
occasions. We will come to know that language remained one of the key factors
in all the situations. Talking about Baltistan we take down these that  Baltistan is located at the great north of
Pakistan that is why once it was called the northern part of Pakistan.

(Afridi, 1988). The
historian Ptolemy,who was also a general in the army of Alexander the Great,
had named the region ‘Byaltae’ in his book. In fact Baltistan is the Persian
translation of Baltiyul, “The Homeland of Balti”.

 Balti language is
spoken in Gilgit Baltistan principally the majority of Baltistan’s people are
Balti speakers.

 (Yousf, 2009). There are Almost 400000 native
speakers of Balti language in the four districts of Baltistan (Skardu, Ghanche,
Kharmong and Shigar).In totaling to this, total number of Balti speakers is
estimated to be 7.1 million across the world. It is not spoken only northern
area of Pakistan but also spoken in different country of the world, like Ladak
(India) and Tibet. Baltistan was part of Ladakh before 1948 and Balti which is
speaking in Baltistan is also sub-dialect of Ladakhi and Archaic dialect which
is the dialect of Tibetan language.

This
research will explain Comparative Study of English and Balti tense marker.

 Through a combination of getting Balti and English tens
marker. It is an interested and important topic in Balti language so this is
the reason we select this topic for my study. The part of tense is very
important thing in every language. In the developmental age Balti language is
going in danger zone. If new generation will not do work on this language then
it will abolish after some generation. By this study we will cover this
specific area and it will be very fruitful for upcoming researchers to document
this language. Balti is my mother tongue so it will helpful for my study. We
are strongly aware about this language and this will our strengthen to study
this research study.

English
is a West German language. It has been originated from a piece of land which is
known as medieval England. It is spoken in European countries. In this research
we will indicate the tense marker in English and Balti language. I will also
describe what are the differences in tense marker of Balti and English
language. Some are similar and some are totally different. For this purpose we
took different words from Balti and English languages. In Balti and English
language different inflections are used to show the different types of tense.

Research Question:

1.      What
are the major differences in Balti and English language?

2.      Which
type of similarities we can find in these two languages?

3.      What
are the sentence structures of Balti and English language?

Objectives:

There are some objectives
behind conducting this research.

·        
This study aims to explore the tense
marker in Balti language.

·        
The objective is to explore the sentence
structure of Balti and English language.

·        
The objective is to comparatively study the
Modern language English with Balti language.

·        
To find out the similarities in both the
languages.

·        
The study aims to present the differences
between Balti and English language.

Literature
Review:

Bilqees Nadeem 2013-2014 department of modern
languages of KIU Skardu Campus did a comparative study of English and Balti
language regarding verb conjugation at secondary level in Skardu city but she
did not touch the tense marker in Balti language.

Inayat Ali did research on comparative study of
English and Balti inflections but the tense marker is neglected.

Muhammad Hussain 2012-2014 department of Modern
Languages KIU Skardu Campus studied problem faced by Balti students in English
speech sound at intermediate level in Baltistan but the tense marker is
untouched.

Iftikhar Husain 2012 has discussed the comparative
study of Balti and English languages regarding distinctive sounds but the tense
markers in Balti language has not explored yet.

Research
Methodology:

This study is based on qualitative
method. The data has been collected for this specific study by using
qualitative approach.

Data
Collection and Analysis:

This research analyzed
present, past and future tenses in Balti language. Different tense marker is
shown in this research. In this study verbs of Balti language have been
analyzed and collected data by using different sources. The researcher has
described Balti verbs further from present simple till future perfect
progressive.

 

BALTI GRAMMAR

The Sentences and their Kinds:

To speak or write in any language for a meaningful
communication we use words. Mostly we use these words in groups. But some time
a single word can also give complete sense.

 

Words
in groups

Balti sentences

Translation

Ali schooling goaid

Ali goes to school

Jamal Songs

Jamal went

 

                                                                       
Word

Ong

come

Song

go

Dong

Let’s go

Duk

sit

 

Sentence structure

Simple Formula:

Subject + object +
verb

Simple
Sentences

Balti sentences

Translation

Sub + v + obj

Sub + obj + V

Jamal schooling
songs

Jamal went to school

Du shoqbu chik in

This is a book

 

 

Balti declarative

A sentence which
makes statement/ assertion is known as declarative sentence.

Balti
sentences

Translation

Likhmo mi chik

A good man

Balti imperative sentences

A
sentence which makes command, request or entreaty is known as imperative
sentence.

 

Balti
sentences

Translation

Sekha duk

Sit down

Hul longs

Stand up

 

Negative
Formula:

Sub
+ obj + not + v

Negative sentences

Balti sentences

Translation 

Sub + obj + ma + v

Sub + HV+not +V+obj

Jamal schooling
ma Song

Jamal did not go
to school

Ali daftaring
ongan ma yod

Ali is not
coming office

 

Interrogative
Formula:

Sub
+ obj+ v +na/da +?

                                      Interrogative
Sentences

 

Balti sentences

Translation

Sub + obj + v+ HV+?

Sub + HV+V+obj+?

Ali schooling
songfi – na?

Did Ali go to
school?

Ali daftaring
ongan yo-da?

Is Ali coming
school?

 

Interrogative
Negative Formula:

Sub
+ obj+ main + v HV?

Interrogative
 negative Sentences

Balti sentences

Translation

Sub + obj + not + v

Sub + HV+not +V+obj

Ahmad schooling songfi main-na?

Did Ahmad not go to school?

Akbar daftaring ongan ma-da?

Is Akbar not coming to office?

 

1.      Present simple

In
present simple the English and Balti formula is

 Sub+ v+ obj                                           sub+obj+v

English

Balti

Ali writes a
letter.             

Ali khat rebed

Read

Zaired

Sew

trubed

Listen

snabed

Make

fuched

In
English language with singular noun ” s, es, ies” are added with v1st, rather
in Balti language “ed” is the inflection and it shows the present simple in
Balti language.

 

2.     
Present
Progressive

English

Balti

He is writing a
letter

Kho khat riben
yod

Are Speaking

zairen yod

Am Searching

xalen yod

Am Missing

Etiubain
yod 

Is coming

Ongain yod

 

In
English is,am,are + v1st+ ing shows the present progressive tense rather in
Balti language “en, yod” are tense marker and show present progressive in balti
language.

 

3.     
Present
Perfect

English

Balti

I have drunk
water

ribispin

Have Drunk 

thugfin

Have Gone

songfin

Hase Beaten

tiyangfin

Have kept

yaqfin

 

In
Balti language the tense makers are “pin and fin” but in English language
auxiliary verb has or have+ v3rd is used to show present perfect.

 

4.     
Present
Perfect Progressive                                                                   

English

Balti

He has been
speaking

Kho si zairen
yodpin

Has been making

fuchen yodpin

Have been
washing

khroaen yodpin

Have been
watched

Halthain yodpin

Have been washed

Throyn yodpin

 

Yodpin
is inflection and tense marker in present perfect progressive in Balti
language. In the other hand in English language has/have +been +ing are used to
show present progressive tense.

 

 

 

 

 

 

5.      Past simple

English

Balti

I ate food

Na zan zos

Tired

Khalats

Went

Songs

Scolded

Stroqs

Told

Zais

In balti language v + s
(halta + s) is tense marker in past tense but in English language mostly “ed”
shows the past tense.

6.      Past Progressive

English

Balti

Was working

Las ben yodpa

Were weeping

Nuen yodpa

Was smiling

Thaden yod pa

Was running

Rgugen yod pa

Was playing

Hrsono bain yod
pa

 

In English language
auxiliary verbs was/were + v ing are used to show past progressive but in balti
language “en, yod pa” is tense marker and it shows past tense

7.      Past Perfect tense

English

Balti

Had bought

Len sed pa

Had broken

Chaqsedpa

Had fought

Khril sed pa

Had eaten

Zo sed pa

Had read

Zair sed pa

 

In
balti language the inflection is “ed, pa” ( verb + edpa) shows the past perfect
tense. In English language auxiliary verb has/have + v 3rd show the
past perfect tense

 

8.      Past perfect progressive tense

English

Balti

He had been
talking

Kho kara tangnen
yodpa

Had been painting

Rang ben yodpa

Had been cooking

Kalen yodpa

Had been sleeping

Nit tangnen yodpa

Had been typing

Typing bain yod
pa

 

In
English language had+ been + ving is tense marker in past perfect progressive
rather in balti language “en, yod pa” are inflections and tense marker for past
progressive tense

9.      Future simple

English

Balti

Will tear

Ched pin

Teach

Laxa bin

Go

Goy in

Bring

Khiuo min

 

 

In English language
auxiliary + verb1st shows the future simple but in Balti language verb + in
(chedpin) is mostly used as a tense marker in this tense.

10.  Future progressive

English

BALTI

He will be
bringing

Kho khigyiaen
duktuk

Will be missing

Ituben duktuk

Will be Standing

Langsen duktuk

Will be reading

Zairain duktuk

Will be writing

Rbain duktuk

 

In
Balti language “en, duktuk” is tense marker v + en duktuk (etuben duktuk) show
the future progressive tense but in English language will + be+ v ing is a
tense marker for this tense.

 

11.  Future Perfect  

English

Balti

I shell have run

Na shoreyn duk
pa yod

Will have Climbed

Thuley dukpa yod

Shell have Driving

Struley duk pa
yod

Shell have
hitting

Tiyanain duk pa
yod

Will have
burning

May tanain duk
pa yod

 

In
this tense “dukpa yod” is a tense marker in Balti language. In English language
auxiliary “will + have” with verb 3rd show the future perfect tense.

 

12.  Future Perfect progressive.

English

Balti

Will have been
playing

Hrixasen
dukpayod pa yod

Will having been
Wearing new dress

Sarfa gonchas gonen
dukpa yod payod

Walking

Drulen duk pa
yod pa yod

 

 

 

 

In Balti language “dukpa yod pa yod” is a tense marker
which show future perfect progressive. In English language auxiliary + verb ing
show this tense and will + have + been + ing is a tense marker.

Findings/
Discussion:

 After analyzing
the English and Balti language we found that there is a huge difference between
these two languages. The inflections and the auxiliaries are totally different
in both languages. The English language follows the SVO pattern and the Balti
language follows the SOV pattern.
Balti and English sentence structure are totally different with each other for
example English structure is(S+V+O) but in Balti (S+O+V). In this sentence Ali
went to school if we translate this sentence in Balti language then Ali
Schooling songs here Ali is on place of subject but schooling is object but com
to the place of verb as well as songs is verb but come on the place of object.

Imperative
sentences sentence which makes command, request or entreaty is
known as imperative sentence. Balti imperative sentence also different to
English for example “sekha duk” sit down “hul longs” stand up. 

Nagative formula also changed from English in Balti
grammar use (S+O+NOT+V) “Jamal schooling ma song” jamal did not go to school.
In this sentence “schooling” is object which come on the place of verb, “ma” is
showing negation here and come on same place like English but “songs” is verb
which come on the place of object.

Balti interrogative sentences made by ( S+O+V+Neg
Mark+?) this structure ” Ali schooling ongain yoda? Is Ali coming school? In
interrogative sentences of English language we use HV on the start of the
sentence and subject come on second number but in Balti language subject,
object and verb also come on their places only add “na and da” with the end of
verb  according to the word.

For making interrogative negative sentences use “Ma”
in Balti language. “Yaseen university songfi ma na”? In this example all the
sentence is same like simple interrogative but add “ma” at the end of
verb.     

Conclusion:

In conclusion we have concluded the central idea and
the theme of our research that both languages have different sentence
structure.

 Different tense
markers are used to show different tenses. After analyzing these two languages
we came to know that Balti language also has different inflections to show
different tenses, as well as some where suffixes are used to recognize the
tenses.

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