Abstract: reasons and adverse impact of cyber crimes

Abstract:

Todays world has
become a parallel form of life and living.Here Public are now capable of doing
things which were not imaginable few years ago. Internet has enabled the use of
website communication and a lot of anytime anywhere the IT solutions for the
betterment of human kind. Cyber crime is a very serious threat. Governments,
police departments and intelligence units have started to react cyber threats.
In this paper, we will try to discuss about cybercrime in detail including the
types, methods, technical reasons and adverse impact of cyber crimes on a
network as well as the behavior , psychology behind this crime & some
effective solutions .

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 Introduction :

Crime  have
been associated with mans  fall.1 This
Crime remains intangible and ever strives to hide  in the face of improvement. Different nations
have different feat to contend with crime depending on their nature and range.
It has permission a negative social and economic consequence. Cybercrime is a
crimes committed on the internet using the computer as either a tool or a
targeted victim. It is very difficult to classify crimes in general into distinct
groups as many crimes involves on a daily basis.  In the real world, crimes like hacking,
murder or theft need not  necessarily be
separate.  All cybercrimes involve both
the computer and the person behind it as victims. For example, hacking involves
attacking the computer’s data . It is important to take note that cyber crime
occurs in many cases and it is not possible to classified a appropriate
classification system.

Cyber Crime :

Cyber crime is the latest  the most complicated problem in the cyber
world. “Cyber crime  said to be those
species, of which, genus is the daily crime, and where either the computer is a
subject of the conduct conventional crime”. “Any criminal operation that uses a
computer  target or a means for
enternalize further crimes comes within the of cyber crime” . The computer may
be used as a instrument in the following kinds of activity- financial crimes,
pornography, online gambling,hacking, computer information hacking crime, email
spoofing,  cyber defamation, cyber
stalking. The computer may however be 
act the following cases- unauthorized access to  computer networks,and the information
contained in the electronic form, data didling, salami attacks,  web jacking, theft of computer system,
physically damaging the computer system.

Causes of Cybercrime:

Cyber criminals always opt an
easy way to make big money. They target rich people or rich organizations like
banks, casinos and financial firms where a huge amount of money flows daily and
hack sensitive information. Catching such criminals is difficult. Hence, that
increases the number of cyber-crimes across the globe. Computers are
vulnerable, so laws are required to protect and safeguard them against cyber
criminals. We could list following reasons for the vulnerability of computers:

§  Easy to access – The problem behind safeguarding
a computer system from unauthorized access is that there are many possibilities
of breach due to the complex technology. Hackers can steal access codes, retina
images, advanced voice recorders etc. that can fool biometric systems easily
and bypass firewalls can be utilized to get past many security systems.

§  Capacity to store data in
comparatively small space – The computer has the unique
characteristic of storing data in a very small space. This makes it a lot
easier for the people to steal data from any other storage and use it for own
profit.

§  Complex – The computers run on operating
systems and these operating systems are programmed of millions of codes. The
human mind is imperfect, so they can do mistakes at any stage. The cyber
criminals take advantage of these gaps.

§  Negligence – Negligence is one of the
characteristics in human conduct. So, there may be a possibility that
protecting the computer system we may make any negligence which provides a
cyber-criminal the access and control over the computer system.

§  Loss of evidence – The data related to the crime
can be easily destroyed. So, Loss of evidence has become a very common &
obvious problem which paralyzes the system behind the investigation of
cyber-crime.

 

Reasons
for Cyber Crime :

There
are many technical reasons behind these crimes. The threats of cybercrime to the
network security are not only for several organizations, but can be observed all
over the world in

different countries Some technical reasons behind cyber crimes are as follows:

Hacking: It is a simple term that defines
sending an illegal instruction to any other computer or network. In this case,
a person’s computer is hacked so that his personal or sensitive information can
be accessed. The criminal uses a variety of software to crack a person’s
computer and the person may not be aware that his computer has been accessed
from a remote location. Often, government websites are a hot target for hackers
because it helps them gain notoriety which is further fuelled by aggressive
media coverage. This is different from ethical hacking which is used by many
organization to check their Internet security protection.11

Child pornography and Abuse: The internet is being highly used
to abuse children sexually worldwide. This is also a type of cyber-crime
wherein criminals solicit minors via chat rooms for the purpose of child
pornography. The Cybersecurity department of every nation is spending a lot of
time monitoring chat rooms frequented by children with the hopes of reducing
and preventing child abuse and soliciting.12

Capacity to store data in
comparatively small space-The
computer has unique characteristic of storing data in a very small space. This
affords to remove or derive information either through physical or virtual
medium makes it much more easier. 13

 

 

 

Easy to access-

The
problem encountered in guarding a computer system from unauthorised access is
that there is every possibility of breach not due to human error but due to the
complex technology. By secretly implanted logic bomb, key loggers that can
steal access codes, advanced voice recorders; retina imagers etc. that can fool
biometric systems and bypass firewalls can be utilized to get past many a
security system.14

•     
Lack
of reporting and standards3

•     
Tough
to identify3

•     
Limited
media coverage.3

•     
Least
marginal cost of online activity due to global 
reach.3

•     
A
very few rate of Official investigation and criminal prosecution3

•     
Capability
of computer to store data in comparatively small space.4

•     
Easy
to access4

•     
Complexities
in operating systems code4

•     
Lake
of evidence4

•     
Negligence4

•     
Loopholes
in systems5

                

Cyber
Criminals :

  The cyber
criminals constitute of various groups/ category. This division may be
justified on the basis of the object that they have in their mind. The
following are the category of cyber criminals

1.
Children and adolescents between the age group of 6 – 18 years :The simple reason
for this type of offender behaviour pattern in children is seen mostly due to
the curiousity to know and search the things. 
Other akin reason may be to prove themselves to be outstanding amongst
other children in their group.

2.
Organised hacker: These kinds of hackers are mostly organic together to fulfil
certain objective. The reason may be to fulfil their political bias,
superstition, etc. The Russian are said to be one of the best quality hackers
in the world..  The NASA as well as the
Microsoft sites is always under attack by the hackers.

3.
Professional hackers / crackers  Their
work is inspires  by the colour of money.
These kinds of hackers are mostly employed to hack the site of the competing and
get credible, reliable and valuable information. Further they are ven employed
to damage the system of the employer basically as a measure to make it safer by
discover the loopholes.

 

Different types of
cyber crime:

Fraud and financial criminal:

Computer fraud is any dishonest misrepresentation of fact intended
to let another to do or refrain from doing something which causes loss. In this
context, the fraud will result in obtaining a benefit by:

·        
Altering in an
unauthorized way. This requires little technical expertise and is common form
of theft by employees altering the data before entry or entering false data, or
by entering unauthorized instructions or using unauthorized processes;

·        
Altering, destroying,
suppressing, or stealing output, usually to conceal unauthorized transactions.
This is difficult to detect;

·        
Altering  stored data;

.

Data
diddling:

This kind of an attack entangle altering raw data
just before a computer processes it and then changing it back after the
processing is completed. The electricity board faced similar problem of
information diddling while the department was being computerised.

 

Denial
of Service attack: The
computer of the oblation is flooded with more requests than it can handle which
cause it to crunch. Distributed Denial of Service

(DDoss) attack is also a type of denial of service
attack, in which the criminals are wide in number and widespread. E.g. Amazon,
Yahoo.

Web
jacking:

 This term Web
jacking is derived from the term hi jacking. In these kinds of crime the hacker
gains access and control over the web site of another. The hacker may even
mutilate or change the information on the site.8  This 
occurs  political objectives or
for money. Here recently the site of MIT (Ministry of Information Technology)
was hacked by the Pakistani hackers and some obscene matter was placed
therein.25 After that the site of Bombay crime branch was also web jacked.5
There are Another case of web jacking is that of the ‘gold fish’ case. In this
web jacking case the site was hacked and the data pertaining to gold fish was
changed. Thus the web jacking is a process whereby control over the site of
another is made backed by some consideration for it.2

 

Awareness:

As technology advances huge
people rely on the internet to store sensitive information such as banking or
credit card information, criminals are going to attempt to steal that
information. Cyber-crime is a great threat to people across the world. Raising
awareness about how information is being protected and the tactics criminals
use to steal that information is very important today. According to the FBI’s
Internet Crime Complaint Center occurs in 2014 there were 269,422 complaints
filed.4 With all the claims combined there were a reported total loss of
$800,492,073.6But yet cyber-crime never seem to be on the average person’s
radar. There are more than 1.5 million cyber-attacks
annually, that means that there are over 4,000 attacks a day, 170 attacks every
hour, or nearly three attacks every minute, with studies showing us that only
16% of victims were carrying out the attacks to stop.5 Anyperson who uses the
internet for any reason can be
a victim,  it is important to be aware of
how one is being fully protected while online.7

 

Prevention of Cyber
Crime:

We know that 
Prevention is always better than cure. 
We should keep in mind the following things.

1.     
For prevent cyber stalking avoid
disclosing any information pertaining to one self. This is as good as
disclosing anyones identity to strangers in public place.

2.     
It is urgent to avoid sending any
photograph online particularly to strangers and chat friends as there have been
incidents of misuse of the photographs.

3.     
Everyone must use latest and update
antivirus software to guard against virus attacks.

4.     
 It is necessary always keep back up volumes so
that one may not suffer data loss in case of virus contamination

5.     
 Never send someones credit card number to any
site that is not secured, to guard against frauds.

6.     
 Always keep a watch on the sites that  children are accessing to prevent any kind of
harassment  of children.

7.     
At last  It is better to use a security programme that
gives control over the cookies and send information back to  the site as leaving the cookies unguarded . 

 

 

 

 

Conclusion
:

Human minds capacity is ambigious.It’s also true
that It is not possible to extract cyber crime . But It is quite possible to
check them. Technology acting to make this crime more effective to battle cyber
crime.  We can not think
our daily life without computer as well as internet. The advantages of internet
and computer can not be explained in one word. But they have also some fault as
like cyber crimes. Its also became a part of our life. Criminals and victims
both are the part of our society. Now, the rate of various types of cyber
crimes increases rapidly. It must be reduced by keeping proper steps that’s are
already discussed in this paper for keeping safe our personal and private data
and information ,ensure the security of all types of websites and making
our  society clean & peaceful.

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