Abstract relating to health information technology. It considers

Abstract

Technology is
changing whether we want it to or not. The future research that is being done for health
information technology will impact us in many different ways.  This paper explores different articles and
topics relating to health information technology. It considers what effects
it and how it will be developed in the future. In the end, this paper
will examine the issue that technology is rising and updating quickly, but can
we keep up with it? In theory, I believe that with the proper equipment and
knowledge, we will be able to keep up.

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Literature Review

 

The topic that I have chosen to research is Future Research in Health
Information Technology. I will be discussing everything that is involved in health
technology and the way that it has come about and whether or not every
generation is able to keep up with it. I chose this because of my interest in the
way technology is evolving and how we have no choice but to adapt to it. For
starters, I will discuss the history of technology. Where it came from to
where and how it started. This pertains to the future of technology because of
being able to compare to how it has changed and how much people rely on it now. I
will discuss how it is implemented and the phases of that implementation, which
pertains to why organizations and facilities have decided to take the technology
route.

I decided to also talk about the advantages and disadvantages as well as mention
my view on the topic and what I feel future technology will look like.

This discusses whether or not the technology aspect is working or not. It
also pertains to the future because of how these disadvantages will change to
advantages in years to come. I will also discuss the future technology
that is to come within the Trump presidency and whether or not I agree or
disagree with it. This is extremely important because when presidency
changes, so does the world around it. The presidency has a big effect on the way
the health world will work in the future. This meaning that
technology and how it is used in certain facilities will be changing. Lastly,
I will discuss the future of technology in organizations and facilities. My
last standpoint will be what the future will hold with the way technology is
changing. All of this relates to the HIM profession because of the day to
day operations that HIM professionals do. Every detail relates to my
topic in a broader sense. They come together to identify how technology is
going to impact the world for better or for worse.

 

Discussion

 

Technology is something that never used to be around and is now one of
the most important aspects of every organization. Health Information
Technology had first started in the 1960s when billing was the center of our
universe. This is when the healthcare environment was combined with the
state of information technology and federal initiatives. Once all of these
were merged, the use of healthcare information systems had come about.

The healthcare environment deals with cost-based reimbursement, healthcare
expansion, the representation of Medicare & Medicaid and the financial
needs and capturing revenues. Hospitals realized that computers and storage
were just too expensive so they started to share a mainframe.

This deals with the state of information technology, referring back to the mainframe
computers and the way they are processing information. Then came the
1980s, the healthcare environment started to change. Medicare had introduced
Diagnosis-Related Groups or DRGs. This started to have a need for clinical and
financial information. In this time, personal computers had been revealed
and organizations started to network with local and wide areas. In
result of all of this, hospitals started to integrate different applications so
that the clinical systems and the financial systems had a way to communicate
with one another. The 90s came shortly after and had introduced the
World Wide Web, which was a phase where there was a lot of competition that was
driving healthcare. At this point in time “Hospitals now had access
to broad, distributed computing systems and robust networks” (Grandia,
2017).

Then came the 2000s, this is where integration had increased and there was an
adequate amount of technology and applications being installed that allowed
hospitals to run clinical decision support. Between the times of 1984
and 2000, the individuals that were born are considered Millennials. The
change from all of this technology is said to be coming from and due to
Millennials’ exposure to the technology. Personal experience shows
that this day in age, this generation is a lot more dependent on using laptops
or mobile phones for everything that they do. Millennials have affected healthcare
technology by the generation of Telehealth. Telehealth is
telecommunications technologies that support healthcare in a long distance
manner.

This allows physicians to be able to prescribe medication and treat patients
without having to see them in their office. “74% of Millennials
are interested in utilizing telehealth, of which 63% believe that they would be
provided a better diagnosis” (Evariant, 2015). The Millennial age is no
doubt the most face-paced generation. This generation is used to the technology
trends and as they become older, they influence healthcare and start to force
providers to adapt this way.

While discussing
all of this technology, there must be a way that it was all implemented within
each facility or organization. “The promises of health information
technology (HIT), meaningful use, electronic prescribing, and other policy
approaches are thwarted by current incentives built into primary care reimbursement,
particularly the fee-for-service-only structure and its practical
implementation in most practices” (Jaén, n.d.).

When implementing these systems, you are implementing Electronic Health Records.

Most of the time these records are not that good at supporting clinical
operations. These operations include integration of care, personalization of
care, and prioritizing care across a range of patients’. In order for
facilities and organizations to be able to be successful in the implementation
of HIT, they need to be able to understand the processes in which are adapting
to every new change. Change management and technical support are both
needed when implementing.

          Implementation of the EHR is another
way that research in technology has changed. In order to start
implementation, every practice must create an assessment of their goals, needs,
and just how ready the facility is. Once that is done, they need to plan the
approach and gather information in order to outline a plan.

The third step is to actually select the certified EHR, once selected, there
needs to be some type of training and implementation sessions for all employees.

The fourth and fifth steps are to achieve meaningful use and to continue
quality improvement. Throughout all of this, technology itself needs
certain tools and different techniques to make sure that it works.

For example, a process enabler. This would be things such as policies and
procedures that reflect on the values of the organization.

Another aspect of a process enabler is human resources. A third and very
important aspect is the usability of the information technology. A
lack of support from the technology will make it difficult in choosing and
later on using the EHR systems. Whether this generation or the next agrees or
disagrees with the way technology implementation is going, they may just have
to deal with it. Within every topic in the health profession, there
are advantages and disadvantages. For starters, advantages to health records
and technology is that they are able to provide accurate information and keep
an up-to-date profile for each patient. An HIM professional’s number one concern will
always be the patient and the privacy of their medical information. A
few other advantages are being able to share medical information with patients
and other physicians securely and more reliably. Technology has the ability
to provide the privacy and the security every organization needs in order to
keep a patient’s medical information private or only give access to those who
are authorized. Lastly, an important advantage to every organization
is that this type of technology reduces costs. Due to computer-based
records, paperwork is decreasing and duplication of testing is reducing. Although
the advantages may steer organizations in the right direction, there will
always be certain fears and concerns. This comes from the physicians working in
those organizations. A few concerns that physicians have are that these
EHRs are increasing medication errors and due to the copy and paste option,
staff may avoid taking a complete medical history. Another concern is the HIT
itself.

Physicians fear that the implementation of this technology will fail altogether
because of the lack of features they may have. Through all of this,
technology has not failed anyone entirely and every organization responds to
each system differently. Some strategies in order to be successful include
selecting the correct system and creating a partnership. Another way to be
successful is preparing your physicians for what is going to come.

Training sessions should always be provided for staff so that they are able to
adapt to the technology.

          When discussing the future, technology
plays an important role. The issue here is that technology is changing no
matter what. A personal concern is; will we be able to keep up with it? To my
belief, I theorize that we will be able to keep up with it. To
review this further, a source discusses the future of technology in the hands
of a presidency. In 2006, George W. Bush stated: “We will
make wider use of electronic records and other health information technology to
help control costs and reduce dangerous medical errors”.

With that speech, you can already tell that the future of technology will
continue to grow. Another presidential aspect is Trumps presidency. “Under
Trump’s administration, no other sector will undergo as many fundamental
changes as healthcare” (Yaraghi, 2016). Sources are stating that
over the past decade, billions of dollars have been spent in the health IT
market and it has only caused big failures and small victories.

Physicians are still having a hard time adjusting to the EHR systems.

They say that exchanging medical information still tends to be a major obstacle.

“…recommendations for fostering interoperability and protecting patient
privacy as the two most important challenges in the health IT domain over the
next four years” (Yaraghi, 2016). As stated before, the history of technology
is where it all started, in this case, with President Bush. He
had created a system in which all medical records are stored and privately
exchanged between physicians. Even though most of the US health care system
is not using EHRs, some of these systems are still failing to operate. Some
could see this as an issue. interoperability is similar to that of
computers being disconnected and working independently. This causes issues
by not being able to send and receive data from other systems or computers.

Another concern is that privacy breaches are a lot more likely to happen within
the healthcare industry. Hospitals and other facilities are being targeted
more and more because of the weak cyber-security practices within the EHR
system.

In order to protect this from happening, an increase in penalties for data
breaches is a recommended suggestion says Niam Yaraghi, a nonresident fellow.

With technology growing, it is necessary to create a digital security program
to protect patient privacy. Another source, Mike Miliard, states that
“Without question, we find ourselves living in a starkly polarized
country”. At this point in time, it seems clear that the
adoption of worldwide EHRs has not been achieved. There are still unsolved
problems that are delaying the potential fulfillment of that happening.

Some of these problems are interoperability, safety and security, and usability.

These problems are continuing to increase with EHRs being adopted by physicians
and other facilities. On the other hand, hospitals of the future are
starting to increase.

          Within the last few years, there has
already been many changes and increases in the uses of health technologies.

Research shows that it is just going to continue to increase.

“This next technological revolution – the technology redefining the
healthcare industry of the future- is combining vast amounts of available data,
cloud computing services, and machine learning is creating artificial
intelligence (Al)-based solutions to provide expert insight and analysis on a
mass scale, at a relatively low cost” (Taylor, 2017). By
2020 the widespread adoption of technology-enabled care will guarantee the idea
of “Smart Hospital” will become a reality that we all have to face.

These ‘Smart Hospitals’ will be relying on automated processes. They
will be built on the Internet of Things (IoT). For future hospitals, there
are four innovations that are going to drive these hospitals towards technology
and towards the future. The first innovation being Blockchain technology.

This is a transaction that is built from other transaction blocks that are
linked together. Inevitably, this will keep medical data secure and
streamline patients’ access to their medical information. The second
innovation is Bio-telemetry. This will collect meaningful data and
analytics through a sensor. That sensor will then monitor variability in
heart rate and vital signs all throughout the day. Other devices that are
under development are smartwatches, eyeglass displays, and electroluminescent
clothing. The third innovation is drug development and precision medicine
based on genomics. This innovation is most beneficial to the oncology
department. The final and fourth innovation is virtual rehabilitation in
orthopedics. Physical therapy is a huge asset to orthopedic care. As
these changes start to rise and technology starts to grow, new sensor devices
will come about. these will be connected to a mobile app and will
guide each patient through their daily routines. However, yes technology is
changing but it is not just the tools are doing, it is what the healthcare
practitioners will not have to do.

The next big step
is digital technologies. These are going to be changing hospitals globally.

The Deloitte Center for Health Solutions has created a simulation to help us
identify what hospitals of the future will look like. They took 33
experts which included health care CXOs, physicians and nurses, public policy
leaders, technologists, and futurists. Overall, their concern was to come up with
cases for the design of digital hospitals in the next 10 years.

This gives hospital leaders and hospital boards enough time to prepare.

Within this simulation, they developed use cases in five different areas.

The first area being defined care delivery. This would include
features such as 3D printing for surgeries, air traffic control, and continuous
clinical monitoring. The second feature is digital patient experience.

This would help with enabling on-demand interaction to improve the patient experience.

Another feature is enhanced talent development. This would create robotic
process automation. Potentially, this will allow caregivers to spend
more time actually delivering care rather than documenting it. The
fourth category is operational efficiencies through technology.

This has everything to do with interoperability. The last use case that
they developed is healing and well-being designs. This deals with the
well-being of patients and employees but also puts an emphasis on how important
the environment and experience in healing is.

Overall, medicine
is going to change. “By 2030, the very nature of disease will be
further disrupted by technology. So disrupted, in fact, that we might have a
whole lot fewer diseases to manage” (Walker, 2016). This source says
that eventually in the future, we will not be needing hospitals. The
fourth industrial revolution will be ensuring that individuals will be living
longer and healthier lives. Soon hospitals will become like NASCAR
pit-stops rather than black holes. Another future change will be the system of
organ donors. Patients will start to wear devices that are going to monitor
them.

These devices will be able to feed data from skin sensors and have neural
sensors from the brain that will offer micro-sampling to be done.

“The days of patients dying while they wait for an organ donor will soon
be over” (Walker, 2016). Organs, tissues, bones, or ligaments will
then be printed on a 3D printer and surgeries for clots or tumors will no
longer need surgeons. Tiny robotic catheters will be universal.

Another big change is how medications will be prescribed. Doctors will no
longer be deciding what medication a patient needs and nurses or pharmacists
will no longer be administering them. Instead, the patient’s mobile device will
give the information that you need and have it printed on demand from their own
home.

What seems crazy to me is that most of these things are almost ready to be used
or are already under development. Physicians have already started training
sessions for certain techniques involved with computer science skills.

Although some of these things are already in progress, there are still some
areas of focus that need to be worked on to be able to keep up with the pace of
technology. “One thing is certain: the prognosis for the hospital of
the future involves radical change – and a lot more electricity.

Let’s dream a little” (Walker, 2016).

 

Conclusion

 

            If
at first, you didn’t believe that technology is changing quickly, I hope with
this research, now you do. Where technology started, compared to where it is
now, goes to show the advances and where it could be even after hundreds of
years.

The millennial generation is something that is fast-paced and will only
continue to grow faster. Hospitals and facilities need to start being more
aware that technology will soon take over. Implementing and getting
used to these electronic health records sooner rather than later will be
beneficial to these organizations. Another thing to be aware of is the
presidency. Within every presidency, there becomes new rules, regulations,
and medical advances. The future of technology will always continue to
rise.

Whether the world decides to keep up with it or not is something they will have
to decide quickly. Paper has become a thing of the past and technology
is here to stay. An argument to this is that some physicians are
resistant to allowing these changes. This makes it extremely difficult on the
actual facility and the apartment head. Trying to implement an entire new system
without and backup help or any support from fellow their fellow staff is going
to be a difficult task for anyone. The world is going to have to adapt to it, I
advise that they start doing it now because, in theory, they are going to start
to have to.

 

Recommendations:

 

Recommendation
1- I recommend facilities and organizations start training sessions now.

 

Rationale – Some people don’t like
change, others might. Implementation of new technology could be something
that employees may want but some also may not be up to it. It
is difficult for physicians to become accustomed to a new way that they should
do things, especially when they are used to the way they do things now.

Having training sessions ahead of time, before the technology has even been
implemented in your facility, is a great way for physicians and other employees
to become accustomed to it before it is in effect.

 

Recommendation
2 – Security safeguards

 

Rationale –  Each organization or facility needs to have
better security. Technology is there to improve this aspect, but if
that system fails then organizations need to be prepared with security measures. Facilities
need to make sure that only authorized employees will be reviewing records. Also,
there should be monthly or yearly checkups on the systems to make sure there
are no breaches of information. Lastly, every medical record should require a
certain password or pin number to be able to access that certain record.

only authorized personnel should have these passwords and they should be
updated or changed every few months.

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