activities methods that should supposedly be used
activities within the lives of
Cordillera Regional Science High School (CRSHS) students and moreover, the
lifestyle of these students affected by extraneous variables including the
demographic variable of the participants such as the gender and age. Also, the
influence of these lifestyle behaviours on sport and recreational activities of
the students will be examined.
A considerable amount of studies were
conducted in Australia or United Kingdom but
less research involving sports and recreational activities were
conducted in the Philippines. Participation of adolescents in sports has been
extensively studied. However, less attention has been paid to extraneous
variables affecting the finding of the research. Moreover, demographic variable
of the participants such as age and background or history of these participants
that were related in sports played was not examined by some of the previous
researches. The previous studies covered a limited range of time used in
examining the participants that may cause the researchers to conclude “no
evidence” found. In addition, longitudinal or longer time of examination should
be used to find more findings or information (Charity, Eime, Harvey, Payne
& Young, 2013).
Most of the previous researches used
information or data from researches ten years from the current conduct of these
studies. Therefore, there is a limitation on the methods that should supposedly
be used such as the number of participants and the place or geography.
Because there are a few number
of studies in Philippines involving sports and specially recreational
activities, additional studies of these are needed to find solutions in solving
as to why Philippines became an underrated in sport activities. Moreover, it
can indicate the problems that are becoming the barriers to the participants.
The following are the research
questions that are related to sports:
there a significant difference between the behaviours of athletes in terms
of individual-based and team-based sports?
barriers and influence in sports and recreational activities are affects
the participation of athletes?
is the impact or influence of the athletes’ parents in their performances?
is the relationship between the performance and success of the athletes
and the availability of sport facilities and equipment?
there a relationship between the times involved in sedentary activities
displaced by the time that is involved in sedentary activities?
does the participation of athletes in sports affect their lifestyle
Theoretical and Conceptual Framework
following are the concepts or ‘building blocks’ that can be found in this
research (the following are related to sports and recreational activities):
and recreational activity
of sports and recreational activities
In this research, sport and
recreational activities refers to the leisure time of the student-athletes that
is related to physical activity such as basketball, volleyball and others. On
the other hand, the type of sport and recreational activities also refers rho
the two kinds which are the team-based shorts and individual-based sports. The
barriers and influence refers to the obstacle and the effect of participating
in recreational and sporting activities. Parental influence refers to the
effect of parents if either, neither and only one play/ed in sports. The
facility use refers to how many times do a student-athletes play using facility
and also the effect in the participant’s success in sports. Specifically, two
lifestyle behaviours will be examined which are the smoking and alcohol
consumption. This is to determine if there is a relationship of these lifestyle
behaviours and sports. Lastly, sedentary index refers to the time spent for
sedentary activities such as using computers, watching T. V. and others.
the theory of planned behavior which was developed by Icek Ajzen and used in
the area of sports, this theory has four major parts which are the following:
(1) attitude (2) subjective norm (3) intention and; (3) perceived behavioral
control. Intention also refers to the determination of an athlete to perform a
specific kind of sport activity and also the maintainability that will become
his/her behavior. It is concluded in this theory that the stronger the
willingness of a person to do that behavior, the more likely that a person will
cling to that behavior. On the other hand, attitude pertains to the
individual’s positive or negative responses based from a person’s behavioral
beliefs or consequences behind that specific action or physical activity. One
example is the preference of team-based and individual-based sports. If a
person prefers a team-based sport, one reason behind it is that it will improve
his/her social skills. Subjective norm also refers to the influence of
important people such as friends, family and others or also called as normative
beliefs. Lastly, perceived behavioral control refer to lack or presence of
requirement such as the facilities and others.
It is concluded from these theories
that the four major psychological variables (perceived behavioral, subjective
norm, attitude and intention) which influence our behaviors should be examined
in every sports and recreational activities in order to find solutions from a
specific problem. Moreover, intervention research reveals that this theory can
be used as a framework for sport-related researches (Ajzen, 2011).
The paradigm below focuses on
describing the place of sport and recreational activities within the lives of
Cordillera Regional Science High School (CRSHS) students and in addition,
examines the lifestyle and behaviours on sport and recreational activities. The
figure below shows the variables that will be examined in this current