Adolescent conducted used human cells that they took

Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis is a malformation of the spine that does not have an exact cause, which is why it’s idiopathic there no real justification on the reason why the spine curves a C or an S but there are studies that show possible reasons as to why this occurs. Scoliosis tends to be characterized in 3 categories known as mild, moderate and severe depending on the curve angle degree which is analyzed using the Cobb angle grading scale. This scale provides cobb angle degrees for adolescent scoliosis subjects, controls and patients. Mild is an angle less than 25 degree, Moderate is an angle between 25 degrees and 45 degrees and severe is greater than 45 degrees. Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis affects about 2 percent of adolescents and is most common in girls compared to in boys. In this article, it argues that girls have taller stature and BMI and insist that the cause of this is energy homeostasis. The researchers conducted a study to look into the role of GLP-1, glucose, insulin on DPP-4 in osteoblasts, the main function of osteoblast is to build bone.     The methods used was the MTT viability assay and the alkaline phosphatase staining. The Alizarin red staining was used to show mineralization in the osteoblasts of the controls and AIS subjects. The study conducted used human cells that they took from the osteoblast of the leg of their controls. They assessed the DPP-4 in osteoblasts by plating the cells for two weeks and incubated with PEA for two minutes and rinsed 3 times with ddH2O. They also used the MTT viability assay where they used 96 well plates and incubated the cells after it had passed a week and the experiment was then repeated several times. Long-term incubation with glucose and insulin lead to a higher DPP-4 in osteoblasts. Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis have low BMI. The girls who have Low DPP-4 have high GLP-1. The stature and low BMI is not caused by nutrition and therefore appetite regulation, energy expenditure, insulin sensitivity can be the cause. Energy homeostasis has a huge effect on bone growth and hormones. GLP is known to control energy homeostasis and insulin secretion/sensitivity. In AIS less DPP-4 results in high GLP-1 which leads to high insulin and leads to high bone growth. The GLP-1 of the gastrointestinal tract produces insulin secretion. The insulin sensitivity increases and the consumption of short train fatty acids increase as well which increases the GLP-1 and negatively impacts the cause of bone growth in children and adolescents.  The results suggested that after multiple weeks have passed the mineralization status turned positive suggesting that the osteoblast integrity is related to the alkaline phosphatase biomarker and showed mature osteoblasts. The controls on this subject were the bone from the mouse, rabbit, and rat and in the short term treatment, the glucose did not affect the DPP-4 gene. DPP-4 is resulted by glucose, insulin and is different for controls. The long-term incubation led to a higher gene expression from the controls. The western blot analysis which is used to detect specific proteins detected that the STAT-1 protein in osteoblasts of the controls. This concludes that the STAT-1 protein was low in the DPP-4.There were limitations in the study, the primary limitations are that there was no clinical data to assess during the study. Some examples of the clinical data are nutritional status, the status of them being physically active another limitation is that they did not collect bone, plasma specimens from the same people and also the lack of knowledge of the mechanism that regulates the DPP-4 gene in the GLP-1 hormone.

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