are in such stories. The immigrant’s story has

are Considerable writing
focuses on the concern of identity, often contrasting concepts of communal and
private, cooperative and separate, or local and foreign, in an effort to expose
the facts of impact that mark the exegesis of hybrid structures.. South Asian
writers text in English probable to indulgence a sacrilegious humanist
perspective; when religious ortho­doxy is rutted beside the changing social
conditions of an progressively globalizing world, we see the arrival of a new
type of identity—a self that is constructed on tolerance, disbelieving of
excessive past vernation, and exemplified in the perspectives of an progressive
humanism. The concept of identity is an imperative attention in the poetry of
the county. In the work of women poets, es­pecially, there is a variety of
exceedingly impulsive sensitive expression that effort to define women’s
questions in the sociopolitical structure of the country. In the consequent
difficulty of some of their unit, we see the level to which character is
concerned in ethnic-, class-, and gender-based conflicts. There are many writer
mainly those who have gone from their home lands for them the act of writing
becomes a way to get back their native country, and the idea of recall figures
conspicuously in such stories. The immigrant’s story has in fact proved to be a
fecund subject, and much like the Irish, Jewish, Chinese, and Polish writers,
South Asian, too, have attempted to record the dilemma of displacement,
questioning the act of bestriding two cul­tures and surviving with new worlds.
These histories are not simply conventional comic portrayal of migrants, but
somewhat accurate echoes of characters who are like defective, everyday people,
and whose individual judgments and achievements shows complexity of the
immigrant situation.

The settings of the
narratives are as varied as the themes. Hari Kunzru’s novel, The Impressionist,
for instance, stretches from the Rajasthan desert, Agra, Fatehpur, and Bombay
to London, Oxford, and finally to the remote West Af­rican landscape. Hanif Qureshi’s
work is set primarily in Britain. David Da-vidar’s The House of Blue Mangoes is
set in the lush, tropical spaces of southern India. Jhumpa Lahiri’s short
stories take place in urban American as well as Indian settings. Kamila
Shamsie’s In a City by the Sea is set in Karachi. Salman Rushdie’s Shame is
obviously set in Pakistan, but the narrator goes through great pains to tell us
that the country is not Pakistan at all but an altogether fictitious place. Yet
others, such as R. K. Narayan, create wholly imaginary locales for their
stories.

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South Asian writers use the English language in distinct
ways. Many of the writers incorporate the syntax of every­day speech, or use
Indianized words and phrases in their texts. Often, in an effort to endorse
place, personality, or experience, writers add certain sub continental English
language that is visible by a specific rhythm. Some writ­ers choose to use an
ordinary, recommended type of the language, while others ex­periment with the
normative list and attempt to use the language in new bold techniques.

The admiration of South
Asian writing in English can be credited to the fact that there is a certain
perspective for this literature. The immense rise of South Asian novelists in
specific, has, suitably enough, stood associated to the rising of the Latin
American novelists of the 1970s and 1980s. 
South Asian writers in English can be seen as the unusual translators of
the subcontinents many histories. Their narratives provide appropriate
explanations on polemical cultural and political substances, annoying estimate
of the role of literature in evoking the nation.

1.4.1 Bangladesh Literature
in English

There has been a
distinguished rise of English writing in Bangladesh during the last cou­ple of
decades. The situation was rather different immediately after liberation of the
country in 1971. The use of English in public life was drastically restricted
with Bangla being declared the only official language and medium of education
at all levels. English is no more the patrimony of the
Anglo Saxons. It is now a universal public property and also used as a medium
of creative writing has English been deliberately taken up by writers of the
formerly colonized countries. The number is multiplying with the rise of
Postcolonial / Diaspora consciousness. English was reduced to the
status of a foreign language, and English-medium schools were discouraged. Lin­guistic
nationalism had emulated inspir­ation from the examples of Bengali lyricists
such as Michael Madhusudan Dutt (1824-73) who eventually became a greater poet
when writing in his native language in­stead of in English. Writers were not en­couraged
to publish in English, since there were only a handful of specialists within
the country. And internationally, the inter­est in new literatures in English
was yet to receive the momentum it has now reached. These are some of the
reasons for the lag­ging of English writing in Bangladesh as compared to other
South Asian countries. However, the recent change in the public attitude toward
English has immensely im­proved the readership and practice of English in the
country. Colleges and universities now offer English as a course of study, and
English-medium schools have become more prevalent.

The tradition of English
writing in Bangladesh owes much homage to writers such as Dutt, Beghum Rokeya
Sakhawat Hossain (1880-1932) and Nirad Chandra Chaudhuri. After independence in
the 1970s, poetry writing increased dramatically, as the poets began supporting
the sufferings of the liberation war. Writers of the 1980s conscientiously
dealt with contemporary issues of Bangladesh, and the 1990s saw an increase of
women writers in English.

 In “A Touch of Midsummer in the
Night,” Shahid Alam tries to capture the picture of Dhaka during the time
of the war for independence. Alam has effectively transformed the language of
Shakespeare to narrate a tale of Bangla­desh. Nupu Chaudhuri’s “Secret
Vices” and A Grand Wed­ding, is a comic story of a matrimonial matter
having very typical of the sub­continent. Aali A. Rahman’s “Waiting”
is a story about a man arduously waiting for his expectant wife at the labor
room. Most of these stories are based on contemporary issues of Bangladesh, the
independence war in reconsideration as well as coping with natural di­sasters,
and family matters. Syed Maqsud Jamil’s “The Homecoming” (2002) was
published in The Daily Star literary page. The story is based on the
experiences of a city dweller returning to his rural roots in the past.
Zuleikha’s Dream and Other Sto­ries (2002) by Shamim Hamid is a collec­tion of
short stories, imbued with feminist fervor, about struggling women in Bangla­desh.
Ahsan Senna’s The Tenth Victim (2003) is a contribution of detective stories
written ingeniously in the Western genre of detective fiction.

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