Aristotle the few individuals whom people can
(384-322 BC) was an Ancient Greek philosopher who was born in the city of
Stagira, Chalkidice which is located in the Northern periphery of Old Greece.
Aristotle was just a child when his father (Nicomahus) died. After that Pyroxenes
of Athrenus became his guardian. When he was 17 years old, he joined Plato’s Academy
which is located in Athens and stayed there until he was 37 (374 BC). His studies
have covered many subjects which include Logic, physics, biology, zoology,
metaphysics, ethics, poetry, music, government, rhetoric, psychology and
government. He also introduced the first elaborative system of Western
philosophy. When his teacher Plato died, Aristotle left Athens and decided to
tutor Alexander the Great on the request of Philip 2 of Macedon in 343 BC.
Socrates is known to be one of the few individuals whom people
can describe as the one who shaped the cultural and intellectual and cultural
development of the world and without him, history would have been totally
different. He is mostly known for his method which he describes as The Socratic
Method of question and answer. He claimed that he was ignorant despite being
aware of his own absence of knowledge. He also claimed that for human beings,
an unexamined life is not worth living.
Plato is known to be the world’s most studied and read philosophers
of all time. He was tutored under Socrates and was the teacher of Aristotle, he
also even wrote a lot of things in the 4th Century B.C.E. in the
historic Ancient Greece. There have been a lot of debates among scholars
regarding the authenticity of Plato’s work and how they were written, it was
mostly because of the preservation of that work through time.
Aristotle’s editors gave the name “Metaphysics”
to his work on first philosophy, either because they went beyond or followed
after his physical investigations. Aristotle begins by sketching the history of
philosophy. For Aristotle, philosophy arose historically after basic necessities
were secured. It grew out of a feeling of curiosity and wonder, to which
religious myth gave only provisional satisfaction.
• Aristotle’s Philosophy on Nature:
sees the universe as a scale lying between the two extremes: form without
matter is on one end, and matter without form is on the other end. The passage
of matter into form must be shown in its various stages in the world of nature.
To do this is the object of Aristotle’s physics, of philosophy of nature. It is
important to keep in mind that the passage from the form to matter within
nature is a movement towards end or purposes.
Ethics, as viewed by Aristotle, is an attempt to find
out our chief end or highest good: an end which he maintains is really final.
Though many ends of life are only meant to further ends, our aspirations and
desires must have some final object or pursuit. Such a chief end is universally
called happiness. But people mean such different things by the expression that
he finds it necessary to discuss the nature of it for himself.
ETHICS (moral behaviour):
the sophists, he believed that there was definite right and wrong.
believed that people could accept it and apply it into their daily lives.
• He said that it was up to people (society), as a
whole, to establish those things that are right and those that are wrong.
• Dedicated his life to searching for standards by which
people could live a virtuous/ good/ life.
Socrates was also concerned with
• He wanted life to be fair for all. He wanted life to be fair for all.
• It was a person’s duty to explore the truth regarding
right and wrong, justice and injustice, courage and cowardice.
worked to find principles and laws that all could live by and be happy.
• Virtue (knowledge) is the most valuable of all things.
should be spent in search of goodness.
• Truth is possible to achieve.
• People should focus on self-development rather than
• It is the job of the philosopher to show people how
little they really know.
• An action is right when it promoted true happiness.
theory of Forms:
The forms actually exist are the reality (Being) of
which the observed and material world (Becoming) is simply a shadow copy.
divided the universe into two different realms
1. The intelligible world of Ideas or Forms
The perceptual world we see around us (Becoming)
Form of the Good (often interpreted as Plato’s God), is the ultimate object of
knowledge and it sheds light on all other forms.
Plato compares The Form of the Good to the sun, which
sheds its light on things in the perceptual world and makes them visible.
Plato’s Socrates is an intellectualist- that is, he
claims that people always act in the way they believe is the best for them (at
the time of action, at any rate). Hence all wrong doing reflects some cognitive
error. But in the middle period.
Plato conceives of the soul as having (at least) three
• A rational part
(that part that loves truth, which should rule over the other parts of the soul
through the use of reason.)
• A Spirited part
(which loves honour and victory).
• An Appetitive
part (which desires food and drink.)