Aruna ChenMs. LeeENG1D1-0420 December 2017Powerful Goddesses in Ancient GreeceIn ancient Greece, mortal women had little to no place in society. Women were expected to get married, give birth to children, and do housework. They were definitely believed to be incompetent, and inferior to men, considering the few rights women possessed. Goddesses on the other hand, were perceived to be powerful and intelligent beings. This is surprising, due to how mortal women were viewed and treated. However, women will always be respected to a certain degree, whether goddess or peasant. They’re the key factor that allows life to progress. Despite the fact that females were looked upon as second class citizens, some of the female goddesses had power, influence, and integrity. Many of the Greek Goddesses had integrity. One example is Hera, the jealous and beautiful wife of Zeus. She has never cheated on Zeus. This is shocking, because of the countless times Zeus has cheated on Hera. This shows that Hera has integrity because of her loyalty to her husband. Another example of this is Artemis, who is very well known for vowing to be a maiden-goddess. This evidence proves that Artemis has integrity “There are many accounts of men falling in love with Artemis, but she refused all of them” (Head and MacLea 15), because she could’ve married someone, but stayed true to her core values. Artemis and Hera are great examples of goddesses who have strong moral principles. Although these two goddesses are the most recognisable, it doesn’t mean that they are the only goddesses who have strong morals. Not only did female goddesses have integrity, they also had a great deal of power. Artemis is also the goddess of hunting. Her skills in archery far exceeded anyone else’s, which makes her widely respected for her power. Similarly, the goddess Athene, is highly intelligent. In this quote, it is evident that Athene has power:”Athene was, the greatest among the ancient goddesses. She taught the people many useful arts-how to till the ground and rear cattle. She also taught the women the arts of spinning, weaving, and embroidering” (Grant 20).this proves that Athene has power because of her authority and multiple talents. In addition, Athens; the capital city of Greece, is named after Athene. Whether this was brute strength or the intelligence of a scholar, these goddesses had immense power. Through using it, they have earned the respect of mortals and the respect of their fellow gods and goddesses. Ultimately, these goddesses had a remarkable amount of influence over not only the Olympian gods, but mortals as well. For instance, Demeter. Demeter was the goddess of grain, crops, and everything that grew from the ground. It is apparent in this statement that Demeter has influence over the Greeks “The Greeks worshipped Demeter. People were always careful to offer Demeter sacrifices of the most choice grains, honey, and sometimes, animals” (Head and MacLea 15). Demeter was clearly respected, and there was no discourtesy toward her. Another noteworthy goddess is Athene, who was put on a very high pedestal. Once again, she is the goddess of wisdom, and “she was esteemed by the olympian gods and by mortals to such a high degree that there are hardly any disrespectful stories about her” (Head and MacLea 12). This verifies that Athene has influence over not only mortals, but the olympian gods as well. Female goddesses had a great deal of influence over the people of ancient Greece, they were respected and not to be taken lightly, as they influenced how people lived their everyday lives.Even though mortal women were looked upon as pathetic and incapable of making decisions, female goddesses undeniably had power, influence, and integrity. Compared to these goddesses, it’s surprising to believe that females were considered second class citizens. Hence, females had hardly any place in society, and they were only required to get married, do housework, and give birth to children.Works CitedGrant, Michael. Myths of the Greeks and Romans. Meridian, 1995.Head, James G., and Linda MacLea. Myth & Meaning. CSBE Publications, 2000.