Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) is a
data transmission method using fixed-size cells designed to support multimedia
data communications, while prioritizing quality of service (Qos) on
high-traffic networks.  ATM uses zero
routing, which means that instead of using software, dedicated hardware devices
known as ATM switches establish point-to-point connections between endpoints
and data flows directly from source to destination (Mitchell, 2017).  ATM services generally offer four different
bit rate choices; available bit rate, constant bit rate, unspecified bit rate,
and variable bit rate.  Available bit
rate provides a guaranteed minimum data transfer rate, but allows devices, like
a router, to take advantage of extra bandwidth and increase transmission rates
when available.  Constant bit rate
provides a fixed amount of bandwidth that is available continuously for the
duration of the active connection.  Unspecified
bit rate does not provide a minimum or maximum bit rate, and is often used for
non-real-time applications that can tolerate delays.  Variable bit rate distributes data rates
based on the time required and complexity of the data being transmitted.

            Advantages
of using ATM include: reliable data transfer capabilities for voice, data and
video; compatibility with LAN, MAN and WAN networks; and priority allocation
between real-time and non-real-time data transmissions.  On the other hand, some disadvantages are:
unpredictable response times; affordability when compared to other competing
services; an error control can be more complex.

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            Multiprotocol label switching (MPLS)
is considered one of the most popular and most versatile packet switching
protocol developed due to its ability to carry several different kinds of
network traffic.  Specifically, MPLS
services are designed to speed up the IP packet-forwarding process while
retaining the types of traffic management and connection-oriented QoS mechanisms
found in ATM networks (Stallings & Case, 2013).  An MPLS network contains a 

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