Because model acts as a moderator in it,
Because of the fact that they are all interrelated or interlinked. The involvement of the parents is highly influenced by the, six types of the parental involvement, framework presented by Joyce Epstein in early 1980s (1981), especially at elementary, middle and high school levels. The six types of parental involvement is discussed hereunder:• Parenting: this leads to the knowledgeable family members and the parents to inculcate more into the child and for the better development of the child.• Communicating; this, basically, leads to the parent-school communication in terms of open days, parent-teacher conferences, award ceremonies, student related report, etc.• Volunteering: to involve parents more into the programs, like parent teacher association (PTA) or involving the community for school support, so that they can they can play an active role by participating in the triangle of the school-parent-student relation.• Learning at home: this is associated with the information provided by the school to the parents so that they can have a bond between them taking school in context, on one hand.• Decision-making: there must be a school committee comprising of the parents or family members of different backgrounds.• Collaborating with the community: to support; school staff, students and families to develop a relation, the use of all the resources and support (services) could be attained by the community or the society.Hoover-Dempsey model. To predict and to influence the parental involvement at elementary and at middle school level, the Hoover-Dempsey and Sandler (1995, 1997, 2005) revised model of the parental process. The model proposes the three major sources that follow the path of;(a) Forms of involvement of parents, followed by(b) The involvement of home, and ending with(c) The school involvement.These upcoming three factors are supposed to be the major parental motivation sources.The model shows the streamline communication between the parents and the teachers or the school. Each one of the segments of the first two areas; underlying conditions and domains of communications, of model acts as a moderator in it, which means if it is not worked upon or neglected becomes a barrier itself. To make the streamline in proper execution the teacher –parent collaboration needs to be strongly upon these specific two areas; underlying conditions and domains of communications, as they lead to the further improvement or betterment in terms of result.In relationships and in the profession – as a teacher, the perception of a teacher plays a key role (Park & Ham, 2014). The communication and the behavior if the teacher totally depends upon the point that how he or she perceive the activities in and out of the classroom. This – the thoughts, basically, leads the teacher to act accordingly (Park and Ham – 2014).The better the perception of the teachers will be, the better will be the communication level with the parents (Berebitsky et al. – 2014). And, along with the teachers, of the parents, there will be a good collaboration with the school personnel. When teachers think that they need to communicate a little bit more than the parents, they, naturally, spend more time collaborating with the parents which ultimately have very positive results and impacts on the teaching and learning triangle (Berebitsky et al., 2014). In context of the above said statements, the success level of the children gets raised or gains a higher level if the collaboration between the teacher and the parent is strong. Teachers’ thoughts lead to their actions and the teachers’ perceptions lead to their behaviors, the extensive previous literature depicts this all (Park & Ham, 2014).Family, school and community work as the main barriers to the parental involvement – considering the Epstein’s (2001) model which focuses on the parental involvement. Talking about the other barriers, they basically lead to the miscommunication between the teacher and the parent. It is an assumption made by many teachers that, normally, the parents are not involved in the children’s education (Hornby 2000). But it is also found that parents are normally incompetent and are not able to meet the requirements of the curriculum and the school relation. This belief, undoubtedly, has led to the lack of mutual misunderstanding of the parent and the teacher making it as a barrier to the parent-teacher communication (Horny & Lafaele, 2011). The teacher swill appreciate the school-home or parent-teacher relationship as it impacts a better learning very positively, Smith and Wingate (2016) concluded. Though it is often framed by school centered philosophies, there is evidence of teachers ‘desire for involvement.Barriers to parental involvement in schoolsSocial Economic Background:The parent engaging in schools has more tendency, especially the middle-class families, towards entitled for treating teachers and access to childcare and their commute, the use of the teacher’s vocabulary and culturally-social supportive networks.The trust and the comfort level of the parents allow them to develop their relationship with the school in context of the social capital (Goodall, 2007, 280). On the other hand, the reciprocating situation leads to the feeling of the reluctance of the parent’s to involve more with the school.School attendance:A study by Morris and Rutt (2004), the subjects had an impact between the relationship and the attainment, i.e.; with poor attainment in English but not in science.However, the better possibility of the attainment is more likely to be associated with the better attendance but more absence does not, merrily, lead to decrease in the attainment. School InfluencesLearning in a primary school is much easier; as per the parents. The interaction between the parents and the students lack as they move to the higher grades. The student body size and number intimidates the parent more than anything when it comes to the interaction at the middle school level. The lack of personal interaction leads to the feeling of the frustration, overwhelming and being stressed. The use of the modern communicating techniques; e-mail, is a barrier as it falls in low literacy of the parents. The welcoming attitude of the school needs to be developed regardless of the grade of the students. The school needs to coordinate more with the parents when they are about to enter the higher school. This may not always be the case as there might be a lot of chance of the reluctance from or by the parents. Considering, the parental involvement is at a higher level other than just attending the parent-teacher meetings and the parent-teacher conferences.