Biomass Another efficient way to store CO2 in

Biomass

An
interesting way to isolate carbon would be using biomass. Biomass a material
that produced form living organisms. Specifically,  the biomass is working as a storage for
energy as it uses  H2O +CO2 +Solar Energy = Biomass + O2. As it can be understood there is no need for
large amount of human recourses as the primary need is Sun light. Crops are considered
good option for the production of biomass. Although there would be need for
large areas of planting fields in order to produce sufficient amount of
biomass. On the other hand the sources of machines and generally the
agriculture reassures would produce significant amount  of CO2  in that scale. So the benefits of the biomass
would canceled with the CO2 emission that the agricultural sources would
produce.

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The use of
algae for producing biomass would be more preferable in compare to the crops as
they do not demand cultivable land. The algae consume large amounts (80% to 99%
under optimum conditions) of CO2 as they grow and produce O2. There has been calculated
that an algal pond of 3600 acres would effectively capture 80% of a typical
200MWh natural gas-fired power plant’s CO2 emissions during daylight hours,
assuming an algal areal biomass productivity rate of 20g dry weight per square
meter per day. From all the above it can be understood that the Algae is the
most suitable method for CO2 capture than the crops.

Another efficient
way to store CO2 in a stable form of carbon is the biochar wich holds 90% of
carbon. Its produced by pyrolysis  which
is the direct thermal decomposition 
of biomass in the absence of oxygen,  which produces a mixture of solids, liquid,
and gas products. Also pyrolysis creates gases such as hydrogen and methane,
which are combustible fuel.

 

geologic
sequestration

Geologic sequestration demands 3 processes:
capturing CO2, transporting CO2 , and placing theCO2
in a geologic formation for
permanent or semi-permanent storage. The carbon dioxide is placed into the
geologic formation by means of a system of injection wells. An injection well is like an oil well or water
well, despite that instead of pumping 
oil or water out of the ground, CO2 is injected into the well. Injection wells are
also used for the disposal of various types of wastes and to enhance oil
recovery in some areas.  There
are studies that are suggesting to use deep saline aquifers that are deeper
than 1km from Earth’s surface, deeper than the freshwater sources, as a storage
place for the CO2 that
would be liquefied. The mechanisms for storing or isolating CO2 at aquifers are the followings, (a) Dissolution of
CO2 into the aquifer water, (b) Hydrodynamic trapping of a CO2 plume, (c) Occurrence of geochemical
reactions between CO2 and the aquifer fluids or rocks to form stable solids
carbonates. The geochemical reactions of CO2, aquifer fluids and rocks are
proceeding at a relatively slow pace. Although it has been discovered that high
concentrations of silicates in aquifers are accelerating the geochemical
reactions.

There are 2 types of aquifers the freshwater aquifers and the saline
aquifers. As it can  be understood the
freshwater aquifers are vital as they are drinking water and they are extremely
protected. Also the freshwater aquifers 
are shallower than the saline ones, another factor is that the
freshwater cannot hold high pressure as the saline ones so they are not
practical for efficient storage CO2 . In conclusion freshwater aquifers are not good location for geological
sequestration. On the other hand the saline ones are deeper and there is more
knowledge on that technology due to the injection technology. Also due to their
depth are making a better sealing with the outer surface so they are more
secure. However, their high level of availability makes them useful as they can
source big volume of CO2.

Apart from
the aquifers there are also depleted oil and gas field that with the technique
of Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) they can extract most of the amount of oil and
gas that is trapped in the fields, which in other case it would be unrecoverable.
By that way CO2 would be stored as the injected CO2 will reach with the oil.
Also those fields have proved their reliability due to the fact that they were
storage or oil and gas for thousands to millions of years. Another important
factor is that they are well known as they have been studied on the past and
they are capable of storing huge amounts of CO2

Mineral
carbon sequestration

Mineral
carbon sequestration is the reaction of CO2 with a compound that
gives a stable thermally and poorly soluble carbonates at ambient
conditions. Those carbonates contain the following elements iron, magnesium and
calcium. From those elements mainly the magnesium silicates and the calcium
silicates are the most appealing and for that reason they get distributed
around the world. On the other hand iron as it not so valuable it has not been
examined as source for making steel. Australia seems to differ on that
mater as it known to have big amounts of low-grade magnetite which can be used
for sequestration.

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