Birth | | |passage of sperm |

Birth Control Access to Minors Section 1: Method |How it is Used |Failure Rate |Risks & Side Effects | |Abstinence |No sexual intercourse and no type of |0% |No Side Effects | | |contact between the maleand female | | | | |sexual organs where bodily fluids | | | | |could be exchanged | | | |Cervical Cap |A soft rubber barrier that covers the|20% (40% after |No Side Effects (unless allergic) | | |cervix in order toprevent sperm from |childbirth) | | | |entering into the uterus | | | |Condom – Female |A sheath, often made of latex rubber,|21% |No Side Effects (unless allergic) | | |inserted into thevaginal to block the| | | | |passage of sperm | | | |Condom – Male |A sheath, often made of latex rubber,|14% |No Side Effects (unless allergic) | | |covers the erect penisto block the | | | | |passage of sperm | | | |Depo-Provera Injection |Injection of Progestin that is given |0. 3% |Irregular or missed menstrual | | |every 3 months to preventovulation, | |cycle,Weight gain, Breasttenderness | | |change ervical mucus to block sperm,| | | | |and change the liningor the uterus to| | | | |prevent implantation of a fertilized | | | | |egg | | | | | | | | |Diaphragm |A soft rubber dome that covers the |20% |No Side Effects (unless allergic) | | |cervix to block the passageof sperm. | | |Fertility Awareness |Using the menstrual cycle and other |25% |No Side Effects | | |tools to predictovulation, and | | | | |abstaining from intercourse during | | | | |these expectedfertile times | | | |Intrauterine Device (IUD) – Copper |A device is inserted into a woman’s |0. % |Ectopic pregnancies, Increased | | |uterus (by a doctor) toblock sperm | |bleeding during menstrualcycle, | | |and change the uterus lining to | |Severe menstruation cramps, | | |prevent implantation of afertilized | |Perforation of the uterus, | | |egg | |PelvicInflammatory Disease (PID) | |Intrauterine Device (IUD) – Progesterone | |2% | | |Lunelle Injection |Injection os Progestin and Estrogen |0. 1 – 1% |Similar to oral contraceptives | | |that is given every monthto prevent | | | |ovulation, change cervical mucus to | | | | |block sperm, and changethe lining or | | | | |the uterus to prevent implantation of| | | | |a fertilized egg | | | |Nothing/Chance |No birth control method |85% |No Side Effects | |Oral Contraceptive(estrogen/progestin) |Taken daily by women to suppress |5% |Nausea, Headaches, Weight gain, | | |ovulation and change thelining of the| |Depression, Irregular Bleeding | | |uterus to prevent implantation of a | |*Women who smoke are advised not to | | |fertilized egg | |take oral contraceptives | |Oral Contraceptive (progestinonly) |Taken daily by women to change |5% |Breast tenderness, Weight gain, | | |cervical mucus to block spermand also| |Menstrual cycle changes | | |changes the uterus lining to prevent | |*Women who smoke are advised not to | | |implantation of afertilized egg | |take oral contraceptives | |Ortho-Evra Patch |A patch containing synthetic hormones|0. 1 – 1% |Similar to oral contraceptives | | |placed on your skinworks same as oral| | | | |contraceptives | | | |Spermicide (only) |A jelly, foam, or cream containing |26% |No Side Effects (unless allergic) | | |chemicals that kill sperm | | |Sponge |A soft saucer-shaped polyurethane |20% (40% after |No Side Effects (unless allergic) | | |sponge that blocks thecervix and |childbirth) | | | |absorbs semen | | | |Sterilization – Female |Permanent surgical procedure to |0. 5% |If a woman conceives after a | | |prevent pregnancy – fallopiantube is | |sterilization procedure there isa | | |damaged to prevent passage of eggs | |risk of an ectopic pregnancies. | | |and sperm | | | |Sterilization – Male |Permanent surgical procedure to |0. % |No Side Effects | | |prevent pregnancy – vasdeferens tube | | | | |is damaged to prevent passage of | | | | |sperm into ejaculate | | | |Withdrawal |Withdrawal of the penis before |19% |No Side Effects | | |ejaculation | | | | | | | | “Overview: Birth Control. ” www. mericanpregnancy. org. N. p. , n. d. Web. 20 May 2011. . |STATE |CONDITIONS FOR OBTAINING CONTRACEPTIVE SERVICES | |Alabama |Minors over 14 years, who have completed HS, who are married, or who have a child may get any health care | | |services. | |Alaska |All minors with no restrictions. | |Arizona |All minors with no restrictions. | |Arkansas |All minors with no restrictions. | |California |All minors with no restrictions. | |Colorado |All minors with no restrictions. |Connecticut |Minors who are married. | |Delaware |For minors who are 12 and over, the physician may, but is not required to, inform the parents. | |District of Columbia |All minors with no restrictions. | |Florida |Minors who require contraceptives for health reasons, who are married, have a child, are pregnant, or who have | | |ever been pregnant. | |Georgia |All minors with no restrictions. | |Hawaii |For minors 14 and over, the physician may, but is not required to, inform the parents. | |Idaho |All minors with no restrictions. |Illinois |Minors who require contraceptives for health reasons, who are married, have a child, are pregnant, who have ever | | |been pregnant, or who have a refrral. | |Indiana |Minors who are married. | |Iowa |All minors with no restrictions. | |Kansas |Minors who are mature. | |Kentucky |All minors with no restrictions. However, the physician may, but is not required to, inform the parents. | |Louisiana |Minors who are married. | |Maine |Minors who require contraceptives for health reasons, who are married, or have a child. | |Maryland |All minors with no restrictions. However, the physician may, but is not required to, inform the parents. |Massachusetts |All minors with no restrictions. | |Michigan |Minors who are married. | |Minnesota |All minors with no restrictions. However, the physician may, but is not required to, inform the parents. | |Mississippi |Minors who are married, have a child, or who have a referral. | |Missouri |Minors who are married. | |Montana |All minors with no restrictions. However, the physician may, but is not required to, inform the parents. | |Nebraska |Minors who are married. | |Nevada |Minors who are married. Minors who have a child or who are mature may get any health care services. |New Hampshire |Minors who are mature. | |New Jersey |Minors who are are married, pregnant, or who have ever been pregnant may get any health care services. | |New Mexico |All minors with no restrictions. | |New York |All minors with no restrictions. | |North Carolina |All minors with no restrictions. | |North Dakota |No explicit policy. | |Ohio |No explicit policy. | |Oklahoma |Minors who are are married, pregnant, or who have ever been pregnant. | |Oregon |All minors with no restrictions. However, the physician may, but is not required to, inform the parents. |Pennsylvania |Minors who are are married, pregnant, have ever been pregnant, or graduated HS may get any health care services. | |Rhode Island |No explicit policy. | |South Carolina |Minors who are married, 16 or over, or who are mature. | |South Dakota |Minors who are married. | |Tennessee |All minors with no restrictions. | |Texas |Minors who are married. State funds may not be used. | |Utah |Minors who are married. State funds may not be used. | |Vermont |Minors who are married. | |Virginia |All minors with no restrictions. |Washington |All minors with no restrictions. | |West Virginia |Minors who are married. | |Wisconsin |No explicit policy. | |Wyoming |All minors with no restrictions. | “Minors Access to Contraceptive Services,”State Policies in Brief, AGI, Dec 1, 2005. Section 2: Should Several experts conclude that limiting access and information of contraceptive methods fails to reduce sexual activity, and actually increases the risk of pregnancy in teens. One study found that “roughly one in five teenagers would have unsafe sex if their parents had to be notified when they got birth control (Journal of American Medical Association). ” The tudy reports that three out of five of the teens seeking birth control had parents who knew or suggested going to a family services clinic to receive contraceptives. However, of the teens whose parents were not informed, seventy percent said they would discontinue family planning services, and only one percent said they would abstain from sexual activity. Columbia University’s Dr. Peter Bearman noted that many programs teach that teens must stay abstinent until marriage, and only discuss contraceptive use in terms of failure and risks. He states, “The scare tactics and negative messaging used by today’s abstinence-only sex educations programs put young people in harm’s way. ”

Rebecca Wind, a member of the Guttmacher Institue’s sexual and reproductive health think tank, worries that “mandating parental involvement for contracepion could backfire, driving young people to have unprotected sex and putting their health and lives at increased risk. ” Wind acknowleges that mandating laws focing teens to receive permission from their parents to obtain birth control will not result in teenagers talking to their parents and getting the advice they need, it wil more likely result in teens having unprotected sex and leading to unintentional pregnancies. The Guttmacher Institute estimates that 850,000 teenagers get pregnant nationwide. They also found that counties which require parental consent for state-funded family planning services have an increase in teen birthrates, while other counties have experienced decline.

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The Institute also found that “roughly half of all unintended pregnancies occur among the small proportion of women who are not using any form of birth control (Teenagers Should Need). ” Section 3: Should Not Many experts argue that teenagers should need their parents’ permission to obtain birth control. The main arguments include parents’ rights to protect and child health issues. Father John Flynn states that “A culture that bans tanning, but gives the green light for contraception and abortion for shool-age girls has indeed lost sight of what is important. ” In Father Flynn’s opinion, parents’ authority is undermined when teenagers are allowed to obtain contraceptives without their parents’ knowledge.

A report published by the Heritage Foundation found that in states where parental permission was required, the abortion rate of minors was reduced by 16%. They also discovered that restricting public funding for birth control and abortioin notably reduced the abortion rate. The Public Citizen Health Research Group pressured the Food and Drug Administration to ban many popular contraceptives. The reason behind the ban was due to the link between blood clots and the use of low-dose oral contraceptives which contain desogestrel and progestin. The information was based on studies done with older women, and the effects on younger women are unknown. Concern has also been raised due to the correlation of oral contraceptives and cancer. Dr.

Chris Kahlenborn, a Pennsylvania-based internist, found that “being on the pill at a young age, before having children, increases the chance of developing breast cancer by an average of 44% (Teenagers Should Not Need). ” Section 4: My Opinion I support the compaign to allow teenagers access to contraceptives without their parents’ permission or knowledge. As stated in the Journal of American Medical Association , requiring teenagers to receive permissioin from their parents to get birth control, will not stop teenagers from having sex, but only from getting much needed protection from pregnancy. The teenagers who feel confident in talking to their family about their sexuality will continue to do so regardless of the laws. It is the ones who do not have this confidence that will suffer, along with the children they may have due to lack of protection.

I fear that it is these teens who will be included in the “small proportion of women who are not on birth control” that represent half of the un-intentional pregnancies. I believe that the scare tactics that Dr. Bearman spoke of should include requiring parental permission to obtain contraceptives. This tactic is just one of many used to discourage sexual activity among teens. Scare tactics do not produce results, only silence, and in turn… teen pregnancy among other things. The teenage years are years of discovery, rebellion, and much needed life experience. Teenagers through-out history have went against their parents’ wishes, some out of defiance, some seeking individuality and truth, and some with nothing better to do. The fact is that parents can not control every aspect of their child’s life.

To say that giving the child a choice to be responsible for their actions is undermining the parents’ authority is ludacrist. Have parent’s not directed and guided children up until the years of adolesence, and continue to do so, though often a child wonders astray? It is the parents’ responsibility to communicate with their children and to enforce whatever rules they deem important, however teenagers have always found a way around the rules… why not give them a safety net? As far as health is concerned, I do believe that birth control is handed out by medical professionals – who are aware, and responsible for educating their patients as far as side effects and risks are concerned. Even something as simple as Tylenol has substantial risks involved.

A child is legally responsible for their medical decisions at the age of 14, including the HIPPA privacy act. It is up to the Doctor to sign off on any medical treatment, that the patient is of sound mind and understands the possibility of any risks. In my opinion, teenagers will continue to have sex… protected or not. I believe that we should give them the opportunity to protect themselves, and the lives of their unborn children. SOURCES Boyer, Allison. “Birth Control laws. ” ehow. com. N. p. , n. d. Web. 20 May 2011. . Bumpres, Bianca. “Teen Birth Control Confidentiality Laws. ” ehow. com. N. p. , n. d. Web. 20 May 2011. . K. , Laura, and Jennifer A.

Teens at risk: opposing viewpoints. Greenhaven Pr, 1999. Print. “Minors Access to Contraceptive Services,”State Policies in Brief, AGI, Dec 1, 2005. “Overview: Birth Control. ” www. americanpregnancy. org. N. p. , n. d. Web. 20 May 2011. . “Teenagers Should Need Their Parnets’ Permission to Obtain Birth Control. ” Birth Control. Ed. Beth Rosenthal. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2009. Opposing Viewpoints. Gale Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web 23 May 2011. “Teenagers Should Not Need Their Parents’ Permisiion to Obtain Birth Control. ” Birth Control. Ed. Beth Rosenthal. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2009. Opposing Viewpoints. Gale Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 23 May 2011.

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