Cancer in the next twenty years.  Thus,
is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and a cure for it still
remains elusive. Currently, approximately 1 in 6 deaths in the world is
attributed to cancer 1 thereby making it a critical global concern.
Statistics shows that new cancer cases are expected to rise by 50% from 14 to
21 million and deaths from cancer to rise by up to 60% from 8 to 13 million in
the next twenty years. 2 Thus, researches regarding the advancement of cancer
treatments and its therapeutics would be crucial considering the constant
incline in new diagnosis each year.
common treatments for cancer includes surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and
immunotherapy. Surgery remains as the first line treatment to excise solid
tumours. However, surgical treatment alone may be rendered insufficient to
eliminate cancer if the cancer has metastasize to other parts of the body. Thus,
surgery is frequently conducted and co-administered with other cancer
focus has been placed in Immunotherapy in recent years. This is so as Immunotherapy
elicits a lesser degree of detrimental side effects; owing to their relative
specificity towards cancer cells in comparison to chemotherapy and radiation
therapy. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy are less specific and affects
normal cells as well, thereby making their side effects more adverse.
breakthrough in the field of immunotherapy would be the CAR T-Cell Therapy
whereby Autologous T-Cells are harvested, genetically engineered,
expanded in vitro, and infused back into the cancer patient.to attack on cancerous cells
that harbours the targeted antigens on their surface. Many patients treated
with this form of therapy showed a high success rate with complete remission.
autologous T cells are utilized in CAR T-Cell
Therapy, it is highly expensive and time consuming to optimize such
individualised treatments. Therefore, the employment of
allogenic T-Cells in CAR T-Cell therapy as a universal off-the-shelf treatment
product is a rational alternative in view of the mentioned drawbacks. On the
contrary, allogenic T-Cells will induce immune rejections due to the
recognition of foreign antigens by the immune system.
In conclusion, biomedical research
should emphasize on the optimization of CAR T-Cell Therapy. Remarkable responses
obtained makes it seem like a promising cancer treatment available to patients,
especially in advanced or relapsed acute
lymphoblastic leukemia and large
B-cell lymphoma. The potential to save countless lives of cancer patients in
the failure of all other existing cancer treatments will therefore be one
of the most important topic that that researchers in Biology should
address over the next decade.