Chapter importance of studying vocabulary in order

Chapter
1. Literature Review on Teaching Vocabulary

1.1. The Definition of Vocabulary
Many
educators ,scholars and linguists defined vocabulary differently. Hornby
(1995)defines vocabulary as ”the total number of words in a language;
vocabulary is a list of words with their meanings” .While Burns (1972)defines
vocabulary as” the

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stock of words which is used by a person, class or profession”. To
master English skills, students must know the vocabulary of the language i.e. a
list of words with their meaning because it supports their skills’ improvement.”
(Linse, 2005). Also should be mentioned that 
“Lexis is the core or heart of language”. (Lewis, 1993)
Majority of them highlights the importance of studying vocabulary in order to
master English.

1.2.The
importance of studying vocabulary in order to learn English
Vocabulary is considered as a basis of any
language as it is fundamental for all substantial skills that language requires
. It should be mentioned that grammar is considered “the skeleton of the
language,” however ,  it agreed that
vocabulary is “the vital organs and flesh” (Harmer, 1991).One more linguist,
David Wilkins, stated that       “The fact
is that while without grammar very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary
nothing can be conveyed.” (Wilkins,
1972, p. 111)
.It is already obvious that there is need of studying vocabulary in order to
master language.

1.3.How
Is Vocabulary Taught?
Vocabulary can be taught through different methods and
approaches. Teachers can use real objects and students may learn new vocabulary
better as they will visualize them. Moreover, students need to listen to the
word and repeat it as well. Another method is the direct method where there is
no translation and using the mother tongue is forbidden. Another method is the
Total Physical Response (TPR) which is used a lot by teachers because students
at middle school still are hyper, physically active and could not concentrate for
a long time. (Bakhsh, 2016) However, using games as well as variety
activities while teaching  will allow learners
to learn vocabulary of the language very fast and in enjoyable way . Additionally,
teachers can  encourage their students to
communicate by using Communicative Language Approach (CLT) where they focus on
the language meaning in context. (Bakhsh, 2016)

1.4.Traditional
way of teaching vocabulary vs trough games

The classical way of teaching has been efficient
for many years but the problem with this type of teaching is that not all
students are benefiting from it (P.Black & D.Williams, 1998) Majority of
learners become bored and  loses
motivation to study language.   However ,
Games can help the teachers to create contexts in which the language is useful
and meaningful. Wright, Betteridge and Buck (as cited in Rohani &
Pourgharib, 2013, p. 3541) believe that “With the use of games, the
teacher can create various contexts in which students have to use the language
to communicate, exchange information and express their own opinions”

1.5.Practical
Implications of Using Games to teach vocabulary

1.5.1.     
Grouping the Students
Scott & Ytreberg (2004) stressed the importance of making young learners
sit together in a group because they like to have other peers around them.
Sitting the students together encourage cooperation, but this does not mean
that they have to be in groups all the time while they are working. Phillips
(1993) noted that having a group of more than five students will result in
counter-productivity where chaos might emerge. Teachers could ask their
students to count one until two in a sequence manner and students with the same
number will gather in the same group on the floor. Grouping techniques of this
kind will help in create a cooperative and competitive atmosphere among the
members of the groups. (Bakhsh, 2016)

1.5.2.     
Giving Explanation and
Instruction about the Game
It is important to explain the game to young learners in order to achieve the
desired outcome and fulfill the goal behind its implementation. There will be
no outcomes if the students did not know what to do and they will get bored
very fast. (Bakhsh, 2016)

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