Cloud computing gives users’ ample opportunity to save
their information on remote servers. With cloud computing, content such as user
data, charts, videos, tax preparation, etc, can be stored in a cloud either as
a single provider or multiple providers. To ensure that the contents and
databases are well secured, there needs to be confidentiality. Most of the data
in the cloud are accessed virtually which ensures that the protection and
maintenance of confidentiality of user profiles are paramount.
Malware, Viruses, Trojans, etc., are ways to access
customer’s information without authorization. Data storage in remote servers
often raises privacy and confidentiality concerns among users which includes,
businesses, individuals, government agency, etc., Some of these issues are
1. The privacy
of information from both the private and business entities as well as the
confidentiality of government information is important in cloud computing.
established by cloud provider are the key factors that significantly determines
the user’s privacy and confidentiality.
3. The status and obligations of the Privacy and
confidentiality terms may be varied when a user discloses a piece of
information to cloud provider based on the type of information and the type of
4. The legal status of personal and business
information protections may be largely affected by disclosure and remote
5. Where the information is located or stored may play
a considerable role in the protection of information and privacy obligations
for those processing and storing information.
6. There might be multiple legal locations for
information stored in the cloud which may also lead to several legal
7. Cloud providers have the responsibility to examine
user records in matters relating to criminal activity and any other matters
according to law.
8. There will be difficult access to the information
status on cloud alongside privacy and confidentiality protections due to legal
The homomorphic encryption refers to an encryption
system whereby the cypher text algebraic operation yields the same result with
the clear operation after encryption. Furthermore, it’s not necessary for the
data to be decrypted throughout the entire process. This technique
implementation could solve the confidentiality and data operations in the cloud
Homomorphic encryption can do any operation performed
in clear text without decrypting. This breakthrough is very important in the
encryption world. However, a more complicated calculation is needed for this
system of encryption, it’s also worthy of note that the cost of computing and
storage are very high. This has slowed down the progress and use of homomorphic
applications. Consequently, and as against the key distribution management
mechanism, a cryptographic algorithm known as “Diffie- Hellman” was
been proposed to guarantee a secure means of communication. To ensure more
flexibility in such a way that security will be guaranteed, a hybrid technique
is being muted. With this multiple encryption algorithms are being formed such
as RSA, 3DES, and RNG. RSA is used to establish a secure line of communication
through an authentication which is digital signature based. The 3DES, on the
other hand, is useful in encrypting block data.
Search and Database
Researchers have sought for further studies about how
to apply limited homomorphic encryption in the cloud due to its inefficiency
thereby making the encrypted search a common operation. They later found
another viable alternative for database encryption which is a procedure called
transposition, substitution, folding, and shifting (TSFS).
However, there is an increase in the numbers of keys,
so also is the number of computations and processing increasing. When we have a
scenario of an untrusted cloud, an In-Memory Database encryption technique is
used in order to secure sensitive data. There will be a form of synchronizer
which can be assessed by the owner and the client to check their data. The
client would be given a key so as to easily decrypt the encrypted shared data
it gets from the owner. The synchronizer is then used to separately store the
shared data and the keys. However, delays caused due to additional
communication with the central synchronizer is a limitation of this technique.
However, one can guide against this by using group encryption which will help
minimize the communication between nodes and synchronizer.
Several proposals have been written as regards the
mechanism of asymmetric encryption for databases in the cloud. Examples of such
includes, Huang and Tso who both proposed the application of commutative
encryption on multiple data and that it doesn’t matter the order at which the public/private
key is been used for encryption/decryption. There is a need for the use of
re-encryption mechanism to shows that the cypher-text data is been encrypted
for duality. These are useful schemes are in the cloud applications. For
encrypted cloud data, a proposal has also been made for the use of a
privacy-preserving multi-keyword ranked search approach. This can be used to
search and rank the encrypted cloud data without exposing the user’s privacy.