COMPLEMENTThe noun complement means “an expression or act of courtesy or praise”. We may say that a complement is number or quantity of anything that is important for the completion of something. In generative grammar, all the constituents of a sentence that are governed by a verb form are the complement.According to English Oxford living Dictionaries: “A thing that contributes extra features to something else in such a way as to improve or emphasize its quality”. So we can say that complement is something that fills up, completes or makes perfect: “A complete uniform is a complement to to a good student”. According to American Journal Experts:Complement is word or set of words that completes the essence of a sentence or phrase. Complements are often found in the predicate of the sentence. Example:1. My sister sent me a gift. (In this sentence the pronoun “me” and the noun “gift” complete the meaning because they tell us what was sent, and to whom it was sent.)2. My teacher called my project a master piece. (A master piece is emphasizing the quality of the project.) 3. A complement may be a noun, pronoun or adjective, an adverb can never be a complement. For example, there are two sentences: 1. The girl is outside. (Adverb) Outside is a verb as it tells us where the girl is.2. The girl is beautiful. (Complement) The adjective beautiful is telling us about the girl.TYPES OF COMPLEMENT:The types of the complement subject, object and predicative complements. There are actually two subtypes of the object complement and of predicative complement. The two kinds of object are direct object and indirect object.DIRECT OBJECT: A direct object characteristically refers to a patient, someone or something directly affected by an event. A direct object is a noun or pronoun that is not an adjective or other part of speech. A direct object receives the action performed by the subject. It always follows a transitive action verb. A direct object is can never be a prepositional phrase. The formula of the direct object is “subject+verb+ whom or what” means it answers the “whom” and “what”Example:1. The speeding sports car hit the Oak tree in front of my house.Here in this sentence “the oak tree” is answering the question “whom”. So there is a direct object. 2. The boy caught the stick from the bundle.In the above sentence “the stick” is answering the question “what” so, again the sentence has a direct object in it.If the answer to “what” and “whom” are not found so there is no direct object there is an intransitive action verb.INDIRECT OBJECT:An indirect object characteristically refers to a “recipient” (one who receives something) or a “beneficiary” (one on whose behalf an activity occurs). Recipients and beneficiaries participate less directly in events than do patients. An indirect object can be a noun or a pronoun. To have an indirect object it is necessary that you have a direct object. The indirect object is another type of complement. Like the direct object, the indirect object helps complete the meaning of a transitive verb. If a sentence has an indirect object, it must also have a direct object. An indirect object tells to whom or to what or for whom or for what the action of the verb is done.Example:1. The girl gives the old lady food in the street. The question is to whom the girl gives food and the answer to this question is “old lady” here “old lady” is the recipient means she is the one who is receiving the food. She is a beneficiary and so, this sentence has an indirect object in it.2. The old man gives the child a story book to read.Here in this sentence “child” is the “recipient” because the book is given to he is the receiver.SUBJECT COMPLEMENT:A subject complement is a word or words group that is in the predicate and that identifies or describes the subject. A linking verb connects a subject complement to the subject. Some of the linking verbs are “is, am, are, was, were, has been, are being, might have been, become and seem etc.” But there some words that are both linking and action verbs and these are: “feel, grow, look, appear, remain, prove, smell, taste and turn etc. To know the words that can be the substitute of the above verb with the sign of (=) and still the sentence is giving sense, then the verb is linking. SUBJECT LINKING VERB SUBJECT COMPLEMENT A present is The ring EXAMPLE:1. Ayesha becomes afraid when she the snake.”Ayesha” is subject, “becomes” is the linking verb and “afraid” is adjective as subject complement.2. It is he who caught the pigeon that day.”It” here is the subject, “is” the linking verb and “he” is a pronoun as subject complement.Sometimes, we confuse, the subject complement with the direct object so in order to save yourself from confusion always remember, that only linking verbs have subject complement. If the verb is an action, then the word that is answering the question what? Or who/whom? after the subject and verb is direct object not indirect. EXAMPLE:1. Ayesha felt her forehead but did not detect a temperature.In this sentence “Ayesha” is a subject, “felt” is an action verb. She felt what? “Forehead” is a direct object. Here felt is an action verb because if you substitute the verb “felt” with the sign (=), the sentence will not make the sense.One important thing to remember is that, use subject pronoun as subject complements, means use subject form of the pronoun. SUBJECT PRONOUNOBJECT PRONOUNIWE YOU HE, SHE, IT THEYWHOMEUSYOUHIM, HER, ITWHOM EXAMPLE:1. Don’t blame Ayesha it was I who save you from the snake.In this sentence “it” is the subject “was” is the linking verb “I” is the subject complement. Here we can note that “I” is the subject form of noun if we use “Me” in the place of “I” it would not make the sense of the sentence.2. Remember the amazing girl I met? This is she.”This” is the subject here, “is” the linking verb and “she” is the subject complement. Again if here instead of “she” the object form of pronoun “her” is used then the sentence would not give the proper sense. For example: If we substitute the pronoun “her” in the sentence, her is the winner, in the place of the pronoun “she” of, she is the winner. In this case definitely the sentence will not give the proper sense and the it will be considered as the incorrect sentence. There are two types of subject complement “predicate nominative” and “predicate adjective”.· PREDICATE NOMINATIVE:A predicate nominative is the word or group of words that identifies the subject or refers to it. A predicate nominative can be noun pronoun or a word group that functions as a noun.EXAMPLE:1. Sumran is the great writer and poet as well.(Writer and poet are predicate nominatives. They identify the subject Sumran and complete the meaning of the linking verb is.)2. Mr. Ali became the mayor of the small town.The noun “mayor” in this sentence identifies the subject “Mr.Ali”3. Mr. Ali’s sister is she.The pronoun “she” here is identifying the sister.4. Is Ali whosever gets the most votes?In this sentence noun phrase “whosever gets the most votes” is identifying the subject “Ali”Predicative nominative does not appear in prepositional phrases: For example: “Ali is one of my best friends” (One is the predicate nominative, then “Friends” is the object of the preposition of, not the predicate nominative.)And predicate nominative may be compound also: For example: “Thomas Stearns Eliot was one of the most influential poets and critics”.Expressions such as “It’s I, and That was she” may sound awkward even though they are correct so, in informal situation it is good to use “It’s me, and That was her” these expressions may be acceptable in informal situation but in an informal situation it is not correct. These informal expressions may become the part of formal grammar in future, but it is good to use the formal expressions in the formal situation · PREDICATE ADJECTIVES:A predicate adjective is an adjective that is in the predicate and that describes the subject. A predicate adjective is connected to the subject by a linking verb. Like a predicate nominative, a predicated adjective may be compound.EXAMPLE:1. I was very excited. (The word exited is a predicate and describing the subject “I”.2. The juice was sweet and quite energetic. (In this sentence the both sweet and quite energetic are describing the subject “juice”.)3. This chili tastes spicy.(The adjective spicy completes the meaning of the linking verb “tastes” and describes the subject “chili”)4. How cute the baby is!(Here the adjective “cute” completes the meaning of the linking verb “is” and describes the subject “baby”Predicate adjectives may be compound: For example: “A mobile can be fun, helpful and sometimes frustrating”. Some of the adjectives are given below:PREDICATIVE COMPLEMENTS:Predicative complements serve to predicate attributes or properties. For example:1. Dave was handsome a genius. In this sentence the attributes “being handsome” and “genius” are predicated of Dave.2. Ayesha is beautiful a scholar.In this sentence “being beautiful” and “scholar” are the predicated of AyeshaThe two type of predicative complements are subjective predicative and objective predicative.Thus a subjective predicative has the subject as its “target”. For example: “Dave was handsome a genius”, and an objective predicative has the object as its “target”. For example: They considered Dave handsome a genius. The relationship between a subject and corresponding subjective predicative is similar to that between an object and corresponding objective predicative.In clause with be as predicator there is further distinction to be made between two kinds of Predicative complement “attributive” and “identifying” · ATTRIBUTIVE: . For example:1. Mrs. Williams is elderly/ a grandmother.Attributive predicative complements ascribe an attribute, and typically the form of an AdjP (elderly) or a descriptive (non-referring) NP (such as a grandmother).2. Mr. Usman is young/ a brother. For example: Mrs. Williams is elderly/ a grandmother.Identifying predicative complements do not attribute properties, but rather identify the referent as the one matching a particular description. A feature of the identifying type is that the order of the two Nap’s can be reserved (the culprit is Mrs. William). So either can be the subject (before be) and either can be PC (following be). FIVE MAJOR COMPLEMENTATION PATTERNS: STRUCTURAL PATTERNNAMEEXAMPLES PS P O dS P P Cs S P Oi Od S P Od PCoIntransitiveMonotransitiveCopulative Ditransitive Complex-transitiveTom sneezedTom greeld his friendTom was happy/dentist Tom gave his friend a surpriseTom considered her brilliant/a genius EXAMPLES:· They all fainted. (Intransitive)· He found a job. (monotransitive)· Please find me a job. (ditransitive)· They found him bigoted. (complex-transitive)· She grew tired. (copulative)NON-CENTRAL TYPES OF COMPLEMENT:In addition to objects and predicators there are a number of less central elements that are classified in a variety of different ways in English grammar, but which qualify as types of complements in terms of criteria we have used for identifying complements.· LOCATIVE AND TEMPORAL COMPLEMENTS:In addition to their typical function of adjuncts locative and temporal expressions also functions as complements.EXAMPLE:Grandpa is sleeping on the sofa.In the sentence immiscibility of the PP on the sofa (Grandpa is sleeping is an acceptable sentence) confirms that it is an adjunct, but in “on the sofa” could not be omitted without producing ungrammatically (grandpa is) and thus can be classified as the complement.· PP- COMPLEMENT OF PREPOSITIONAL VERBS:Verbs which have a use where they require a particular type of prepositional phrase as their complement are called “prepositional verbs” (e.g. apply for x, take on x, take on x, borrow x from y, force x on y.)Example:John approves of our plan. John insisted on his first choice.Presumably results from the fact that of our plan is unitary constituent which has been split by the insertion of the adjunct.· PARTICLE-COMPLEMENT OF PHRASAL VERBS CONSIDER:For example:Colin strode in.Everything will turn out fine.In and Out as used in such sentences, are traditionally regarded as adverbs. However, the fact that they function as complements by entering in the close grammatical relationship with the verb and indicates that they are the best peripheral members of the adverb class. In modern grammars they are more commonly referred to as ‘particles’ and the verbs which take particles as complements are known as Phrasal words. Phrasal verbs may be transitive or insensitive.