Concepts such as Diasporas
Diasporas have immeasurably enriched host societies throughout human history, in cultural, economic, and myriad other ways. Concepts such as “Diasporas”,”host country,” and “homeland” tend to give inadequate weight to the extent to which transnational ethnic groups may be deeply imbedded in their country of residence as fully integrated citizens, especially in multicultural states in which there is no dominant ethnic ethos to define national identity. In the case of Chinese Diaspora, these problem is especially contradictory, as Chinese Diaspora in includes different ethnic group inside China including Hakka, Hainan, Hokkien, Cantonese etc. These different groups of people have different languages, customs and traditions. However, the language policy of Indonesia only offer Putogua as the only kind of Chinese and it is the national security challenges to define diaspora properly.
The preservation of ethnic identity for both diaspora and host residents against each other culture was and remains the most difficult and complex task. The first wave of immigration, wanted to integrate quickly in the societies that accepted them and sought to adopt the lifestyle and social-cultural values of the majority group in their host countries, while limiting the manifestations of their traditional ethnic culture. Although it has been said that culture is not a static entity, the way tradition is changes greatly affect the identity of a group of people and the way of cultural change should be carefully consider or else it may be lead to identity crisis.
Secondly, the national security challenges to host countries arise not only from inappropriate or illegal activities by diasporic groups but also linked to homeland conflict of the host residents. The riot against Chinese in 1997 is a good example caused by corruption between Dicspora and Indonesian government officials which responsible for the price rise in necessities. The Diaspora may be politcal refugree and may cause in social unrest by either seeking institutional alternatives of their own motherlands or their hosts, leading to ethnical and political conflicts.
The potential challenges to host country security posed by disapora political activity fall into many categories. There have been cases where the state or social groups have viewed disapora(usually refugee) participation in local politics as a form of external interference, or as a challenge to the ethnic status. More integrated groups are likely to be less likely to support militant organisation which target host institutions, while less integrated and more alienated groups are more likely to do so. Societies with multi-ethnic communities find it difficult to maintain the interests of the community as a whole, since the different ethnic groups all seek different goals to suit their own needs.
The question of divided loyalties is bound to become increasingly pointed as the overseas Chinese invest more of their assets in their mother country. Overseas Chinese account for 80 per cent of the direct foreign investment that has flowed into China since Deng Xiaoping set out to liberalize its economy. This may cause a bias in international investment and adversely affect the economy of the host.
Conclusion This could be understand by the ideology of Chineseness is constantly changing. Ethnic identity is not only based upon race, blood, tradition and ancestry but also may varies from generation to generation shaped by local circumstances. In discussing the causes and development of four conflicts in Indonesia, the degree of integration of the diaspora group within the host society has important implication for potential security challenges. Among the underlying factors, political disputes and economic and social disparities outweighed the other factors and played a more significant role in triggering the initial conflicts.
1.Anderson, B.(1983). Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism, London: Verso.
2.Brah, A. (1996) Cartographies of Diaspora, Routledge, London.
3.Brynen R(2003). “Diaspora Populations and Security Issues in Host”