Unit 1 / chapter 1
are information systems so essential for running and managing a business today?
systems are the main foundation for conducting business in today’s world. As
seen in many business’s survival is everything and existence is difficult
without extensive use of information technology. The six major objectives are:
operational excellence, new products, services, and business models, customer
supplier intimacy, improved decision making, competitive advantage.
exactly is an information system? How does it work? What are its people,
organization, and technology components?
systems collects, stores, and disseminates information from an organization’s
environment and internal operations to support organizational functions and
decision making, communication, coordination, control, analysis, and
visualization. What information systems do is transform raw data into useful
information using three basic ways; input, processing, and output. The people
of information systems involves issues such as training, job attitudes and
management behavior. The technology consists of computer hardware, software,
data management technology, and networking telecommunications.
will a four- step method for business problem solving help you solve
information system- related problems?
identification involves understanding what kind of problem is being presented
and identifying people, organizational, and technology factors. Solutions
design involves designing several alternative solutions to the problem that has
been identified. Evaluation and choice entail selecting the best solution,
taking into account its cost and the available resources and skills in the
Week 5 assignment / Unit 4
4-1 what ethical, social and political issues are raised by
Information technology is making changes
for which laws and rules of acceptable conduct have not yet been developed. Increasing
computing power, storage, and networking capabilities including the internet to
expand the reach of individual and organizational actions and magnify their
4-2 what specific principle for conduct can be used to guide
The six principles for judging conduct
include the Golden Rule, Immanuel Kant’s categorical imperative, the
utilitarian principle, the slippery slope rule, the risk aversion principle and
the ethical no free lunch rule.
4-3 why do contemporary information systems technology and
the internet pose challenges to the protection of individual privacy and
Contemporary data storage and data analysis
technology enable companies to gather personal data from many sources easily
about individuals and analyze these data to create detailed digital profiles
about individuals and their behavior. Data following over the internet can be
monitored at many points. Cookies and other web monitoring tools closely to
track the activates of website visitors.
Week 6 assignment/ chapter 5
5-1 what are the components of IT infrastructure?
IT infrastructure consists of the shared
technology resources that provide the platform for the firm’s specific information
system applications. Major IT infrastructure components include computer
hardware, software, data management technology, networking and telecommunications
technology, and technology services.
5-2 what are the major computer hardware, data storage,
input and output technologies used in business and the major hardware trends?
Computers are categorized as mainframes,
midrange computers, PCs, workstations, or supercomputers. Mainframes are the
largest computers, midrange computers are servers, PCs are desktop or laptop
machines, work stations are desktop machines with powerful mathematical and
graphic capabilities, and super computers are sophisticated powerful computers
that can perform massive and complex computations rapidly.
Week 7 assignment/ chapter 6
6-2 what are the principles of a database management system?
A DBMS consists of software that permits
centralization of data and data management so that businesses have a single
consistent source for all their data needs. A single database services multiple
applications. The DBMS separates the logical and physical views of data so that
the user does not have to be concerned with the data’s physical location. The
principal capabilities of a DBMS include a data definition capability, a data
dictionary capability, and a data manipulation language.
6-3 what are the principal tools and technologies for accessing
information from databases to improve business performance and decision making?
Contemporary data management technology has
an array of tools for obtaining useful information from all the types of data
businesses use today, including semi structured and unstructured big data in
vast quantities. These capabilities include data warehouses and data marts,
Hadoop, in memory computing, and analytical platforms. OLAP represents
relationships among data as a multidimensional structure, which can be
visualized as cubes of data and cubes within cubes of data. Data mining
analyzes large pools of data, including the contents of data warehouses, to
find patterns and rules that can be used to predict future behavior and guide
decision making. Text mining tools help businesses analyze large unstructured data
sets consisting of text. Web mining tools focus on analyzing useful patterns
and information from the World Wide Web, examining the structure of websites,
activities of website users, and the contents of web pages.
Week 11 assignment/ Chapter 9
9-1 how do enterprise systems help businesses achieve
Enterprise software is based on a suite of
integrated software modules and a common central database. The database collects
data from and feeds the data into numerous applications that can support nearly
all of an organization’s internal business activities. When one process enters
new information, the information is made available immediately to other business
processes. Enterprise systems support organizational centralization by
enforcing uniform data standards and business processes throughout the company
and a single unified technology platform. The firm data that enterprise systems
generate help managers evaluate organizational performance.
9-2 how do supply chain management systems coordinate
planning, production, and logistics with suppliers.
Supply chain management SCM
systems automate the flow of information among members of the supply chain so
they can use it to make better decisions about when and how much to purchase,
produce, or ship. More accurate information from supply chain management
systems reduces uncertainty and the impact of the bull whip effect. Supply chain
management software includes software for supply chain planning and for supply
chain execution. Internet technology facilitates the management of global
supply chains by providing the connectivity for organizations in different
countries to share supply chain information. Improved communication among
supply chain members also facilitates efficient customer response and movement
toward a demand driven model.
9-3 how do customer relationship management systems help
firms achieve customer intimacy?
Customer relationship management CRM
systems integrate and automate customer facing processes in sale, marketing,
and customer service, providing and enterprise wide view of customers. Companies
can use this customer knowledge when they interact with customers to provide them
with better service or sell new products and services. These systems also
identify profitable or unprofitable customers or opportunities to reduce the
churn rate. The major customer relationship management software packages
provide capabilities for both operational CRM and analytical CRM. They often
include modules for managing relationships with selling partners and for employee
Week 10 securing information systems / chapter 8
8-1 why are information systems vulnerable to destruction,
error, and abuse?
Digital data are vulnerable to destruction,
misuse, error, fraud, and hardware or software failures. The internet is
designed to be an open system and makes internal corporate systems more vulnerable
to actions from outsiders. Hackers can unleash denial of service attacks or
penetrate corporate networks, causing serious system disruptions. Wi-Fi
networks can easily be penetrate by intruders using sniffer programs to obtain
an address to access the resources of the network. Computer viruses and worms
can disable systems and websites. The dispersed nature of cloud computing makes
it difficult to track unauthorized activity or to apply controls from afar. Software
presents problems because software bugs may be impossible to eliminate and
because software vulnerabilities can be exploited by hackers and malicious
8-4 what are the most important tools and technologies for
safeguarding information resources?
Firewalls prevent unauthorized users from
accessing a private network when it is linked to the internet. Intrusion
detection systems monitor private networks for suspicious network traffic and
attempts to access corporate systems. Passwords, tokens, smart cards, and
biometric authentication are used to authenticate system users. Antivirus
software checks computer systems for infections by viruses and worms and often
eliminates the malicious software; antispyware software combats intrusive and
harmful spyware programs. Encryption, the coding and scrambling of messages, is
a widely used technology for securing electronic transmissions over unprotected