Criminogenic Offenders were now able to purchase

Criminogenic Needs-Based Supervision Model

Since 2012 the Criminogenic Needs-Based Supervision Model goes hand
in hand with neighborhood based supervision. This model is also different from
the justice’s model and it focuses on assessing the criminogenic needs of an
offender.  Criminogenic needs are those issues
that are associated as risk factors to repeat criminal behavior. For example,
if an offender suffers from depression and anti-social behavior it can lead
them having weak self-control which can also cause reckless aggressive
behavior.  The role of the probation and
parole officer is to be their client’s enforcer by also creating a professional
relationship with their clients and administer therapeutic treatment. The
officers must also use the Risk-Needs-Responsivity instrument
to help assess and treat offenders to reduce recidivism. The Risk-Needs-Responsivity
instrument allows an officer to administer a level of risk for each offender,
and to target and alter an offender’s criminogenic needs.

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The Start of Probation   

Probation is still
used as an alternative to incarceration and through probation an offender can
fulfill their sentence two different ways. An offender can be mandated to
fulfill their sentence by being placed on probation or an offender can be
ordered to be place on pretrial supervision. Probation was first introduced in
England during the Middle Ages. During these times cruel and unusual
punishments were used for no less than 200 crimes. Most of these crimes were
considered minor offenses and people become concerned about the severe
punishment of the justice system. Eventually judicial punishment became more
humane and criminals were given a  
“binding over for good behavior,” which granted offenders
temporary release that allowed them to take measures to secure pardons or
lesser sentences. In the United States different measures were being developed.
Offenders were now able to purchase a “security” which was used as collateral for good behavior such as
modern-day bail. Another practice that was being used in the United States was
a motion used by judges called a “motion to quash”. This motion would allow
judges to diminish unreasonable mandatory sentences. In 1831, the case of
Commonwealth v. Chase, introduced the concept of sentence suspension when Judge
Peter Oxenbridge Thacher, suspended the case of the defendant, Jerusha Chase,
granted that she stayed out of trouble. These practices developed the beginning
of modern probation.

John Augustus,
also known as the “Father of Probation,” became known as the first
probation officer. Augustus became a member of the Washington Total Abstinence
Society and abstained from alcohol use. He truly believed in the philosophy of
rehabilitation and he felt that alcohol abusers could be rehabilitated through,
kindness and moral support rather than through convictions and jail sentences.
With his theory in mind Augustus sought a career as a volunteer probation
officer which lasted 18-years. By 1858, during his career John Augustus
successfully provided bail for 1,946 men and women. Augustus’ actions led to
the passing of the first probation statute in Massachusetts which authorized
the mayor of Boston to appoint a paid probation officer. Soon after many states
adopted this statue and by 1956 probation was available to all adult offenders.