Cupisti, practices, and bone densities of four groups

Cupisti,
(2002). This
study aims to investigate dietary composition and nutrition knowledge of 60
athlete and 59 non-athlete adolescent females (age, 14-18 years), using a 3-day
food recall method used. The reported daily energy intake was similar in athletes
and non-athletes, but less than the recommended and the estimated requirements.
In the athletes, the energy supply from breakfast was higher than in the
non-athletes. Energy intake from carbohydrates was higher and that from lipids
was lower in athletes than in non-athletes. Athletes also showed higher fiber. Iron
and vitamin A reported intake than non-athletes. Calcium, iron, and zinc intake
were less than 100% RDA in both groups. Athletes gave a slightly higher rate of
correct answers on the nutrition knowledge questionnaire (77.6 vs. 71.6%,p .05) T-tests were determining statistically significant
differences in nutrition knowledge scores between the two groups. Chi-square
analyses were comparing individual question. It concluded that not one specific
measure is responsible for an adolescent to experience menstrual disorders, a
varying combination of traits such as age, exercise history, nutritional
habits, and nutritional knowledge.

SUZANNE, et
al; (2013) The purpose of this study
was the body composition, nutritional habits, eating disorder risk, and
menstrual health of collegiate volleyball players. Female collegiate volleyball
players (N = 14)
completed a 7 day food dietary recall method used, menstrual health
questionnaire, and EAT-26 survey. Body composition was determined using by a 3
site skin fold test and the Bod Pod®. Half (50%) of participants were deemed
“At-Risk” (AR) for disordered eating according to EAT-26 results. consumed calories
(1928 + 476) meeting only 69.35% and energy expenditure (2780.66 + 148.88). CHO
intake range of 6-10g/kg/day for athletes (3.49 + 0.89g/CHO/kg/day) and the
recommended intake range of 1.2-1.7 g/kg/day for protein for athletes (1.17 +
0.35). Body fat percentage using the Bod Pod® (22.76 + 6.25%). In conclusion,
the current study suggests that collegiate female volleyball players’ diets
inadequate in calories, protein, and carbohydrates, placing them at risk for
subsequent medical ailments including menstrual dysfunction.

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Dars, et al; (2014) To evaluate the effect of Body Mass Index and nutritional
status on the menstrual cycle in adolescent girls. Four hundred one adolescent
girls were selected from 5 schools in Hyderabad.
The data was collected by trained medical undergraduate and postgraduates by
interviewing adolescent school girls using a pre-tested questionnaire. BMI was
calculated using the formula: BMI (kg/m2) = Weight (kg) / Height 2 (m2). HB was
estimated by Sahlis method using a haemoglobinometer. Data was analyzed using
SPSS 11.0. total 305 girls (76%) of the girls had a normal menstrual cycle, 28
girls (7 %) had frequent periods, 52 girls (13%) had infrequent periods and 16
girls (4%) of the girls had totally irregular cycles. 305 girls (76%) of girls
had a normal menstrual flow, 68 girls (17%) had heavy flow and 28girls (7%) had
scanty flow. 152 girls (38%) of girls complained of premenstrual symptoms. 231
girls (60%) were clinically anemic. 277 girls (69%) had a BMI between 18.5 –
24.9 kg/m2. One hundred and eight (27%) were underweight with a BMI of 14
– 18.49kg/m2, while sixteen (4%) were overweight with BMI 25 – 29.99 kg/m2. A
statistically significant relationship was found between BMI and social class
(P

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