Define is when new genetically different species

Define concept in my own words: Natural Selection is an idea first made up by Charles Darwin.  It is the changing of genes throughout generations in order for survival.


Examples of
natural selection:

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There is a
bird in Hawaii called the l’iwi.  It’s
latin name is the Vestiaria coccinea. 
The beak is skinny and droops into the flowers.  The beak is made to get nectar from the
flowers. The bird is dark red in color..


The akiapola’au (Hemingnathus monroi) in Hawaii
has a lower beak that is straight and strong; the top beak is skinny arched upper dig out insects beneath the bark of trees.



How does
this concept
contribute to the
theory of evolution?


The first
birds to reach
Hawaii from Asia
landed 8 million years
ago. They
changed because of their
new environment.

branched into 56 species
from just
one or
two. The birds have changed their beaks from short to long, stubby to delicate and from straight to curved in order to survive in their new Hawaiian home.


Additional information


Comparative Anatomy: The shapes of
Honeycreepers skulls have also changed over time. groups studied. There is also
evidence of allometry to skull shapes. This means that skulls of some honeycreepers grew at
different rates and sizes than others

on oceanic islands.



Define concept in my own words:  Speciation is when new genetically different species are made because they have
been kicked out of the main population.


of speciation:


1.    The drosophilids in Hawaii range in body length from less than 1.5 millimeters to more than 20 millimeters. 

2.    Heads, forelegs, wings and mouthparts have very different appearances and functions

3.    They live everywhere from sea level rain forests to subalpine meadows

4.    Some produce one egg at time, others produce hundreds


How does this concept contribute to the theory of evolution?


All of the
native Drosophila species in Hawaii appear to be come from one single older
species that colonized the islands millions of years ago. Since there are
approximately 800 species of drosophilids in Hawaii, they could have all come
from a single fertilized fly that somehow reached the islands from far
away—perhaps blown there by a storm, or carried to the islands in a scrap of
fruit stuck to feathers of a bird.



versions of the fruit fly are continuing to develop in the Hawaiian Islands.


Define the
concept in my own words: Adaptation theory is also known as survival of the
fittest. It is when an organism adapts to changes in its environment over
time.  These changes happen over
generations and help with how a species eats or mates.


Examples of adaptation:


1.    There
are certain species of caterpillars in Hawaii that have adapted to their environment.

2.    The
caterpillars belong to the species of Eupithecia.

3.    They
are also called Pug Moths.

4.    These
creatures have learned to hunt bugs.

5.    They
have claws to catch their prey.

How does this concept contribute to the theory of evolution?


in Hawaii do not eat leaves or plants. 
They’ve learned to hide along leaves and stems to pounce on insects that
touch them.  They bend their body back in
a quick strike and spiny legs to grab insects. These caterpillars adapted to
eating something more available, bugs.




species have different colorations to match the plants they hide on. Some are
brown and look like a twig, some are green and look like a stem. One looks like
a fern leaflet and sets up its hunting on the fern like a frond.


Define concept in my own words: Comparative Anatomy involves comparing
the body parts of two species by looking at how things are the same on both of


Homologous Structures are when two organisms have the same structure
as a common ancestor.  An example might
be human and dog forelimbs.  Each have
same number of bones arranged in the same way. 

Analogous Structures are when two organisms have the same structure,
but no common ancestor. An example is the wings of a bird compared to a
butterfly. Both fly, but both structures are different. There is no common


Vestigial organs seem to have no useful function, but come from a
common ancestor.



1.    Some
snakes have tiny pelvic bones and limb bones, yet they slither.

2.    Cave
dwelling salamanders have eyes, but they are blind.

3.    Hawaiian


How does this concept contribute to the theory of evolution?


The skeletons of humans, cats,
whales, and bats, illustrating how similar they are even though these animals
live unique lifestyles in very different environments. The best explanation for
similarities like the ones among these skeletons is that the various species on
Earth evolved from common ancestors.



Definition in my own words: Coevolution occurs when two species have a
relationship and change together to adopt to new situations.



1.    Hummingbirds
and flowers

2.    Yucca
and yucca moth

3.    Cheetahs
and Gazelles


How does this concept contribute to the theory of coevolution?


In Hawaii, honeycreepers and a group of plants called lobeliads have a
coevolution relationship.  This involves
nectar feeding, pollination, and seed dispersal. The beaks have changed to
match exactly the way the flower is shaped. The way l’iwi birds use lobelia
flowers maximizes their defensive visual vigilance against natural predators.

These two species work together to survive.


In my own words: Embryology studies unborn animals.  Many fetus structures appear to be related,
but they are not.



1.    Early
stages of embryo development look alike, especially in species with backbones.

2.    In all
vertebrates, the same groups of embryo cell grow in identical order and

3.    A human
embryo looks the same as a fish embryo


How does this concept contribute to the theory of coevolution?



Almost all fetuses or embryos start
out the same way so it makes them hard to tell apart. If you looked at the
embryos of a fish, a bird, or a mammal, they would probably look identical. For
example, fish embryos and human embryos both have gill slits for breathing. In
fish these slits become gills, but in human babies, they disappear.  

This shows
that the animals are similar and that they develop the same way. This means
that they are related and have common ancestors.


In my own words: Fossil Records is where fossils are layered through the Earth’s
surface. Older fossils are deeper than young ones. Where fossils are in the
layers tells us when life forms existed and how they changed.  




plants evolved from non-flowering plants because, in the fossil record, we see
flower fossils becoming more and more primitive the deeper we go, until they
disappear all together.  There are no flower fossils below a certain
depth. This shows us that flowering
plants evolved from non-flowering plants, then began to diversify themselves.

This kind of progression is found throughout the fossil record.


· Fossils are the preserved remains or traces of animals, plants,
and other organisms from the past.

· Fossils are important evidence for evolution because they show
that life on earth was once different from life found on earth today.

· Usually only a portion of an organism is preserved as a fossil,
such as body fossils (bones and exoskeletons ), trace fossils (feces and
footprints), and chemofossils (biochemical signals).

· Paleontologists can determine the age of fossils using methods
like radiometric dating and categorize them to determine the evolutionary
relationships between organisms.




How does this concept contribute to the theory of coevolution?


Evidence for Evolution

Fossils provide solid evidence that organisms from the past are
not the same as those found today; fossils show a progression of evolution.

Fossils, along with the comparative anatomy of present-day organisms,
constitute the morphological, or anatomical, record. By comparing the anatomies
of both modern and extinct species, paleontologists can infer the lineages of
those species. This approach is most successful for organisms that had hard
body parts, such as shells, bones or teeth. The resulting fossil record tells
the story of the past and shows the evolution of form over millions of years.