DEFORESTATION: and many plants. It also conserve soil

DEFORESTATION:

DEFINATION:

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The permanent destruction
of indigenous forest and woodlands. It is a major problem all over the world
particularly in high tropics. Recent and present deforestation affects mainly
tropical rain forest. As the amount of deforestation increases, the
biodiversity will decrease. Deforestation is caused by many factors such as
agriculture expansion, livestock ranching, logging, infrastructure expansion
and many more.

LOGGING IS DIFFERENT FROM
DEFORESTATION:

Logging is normally log
the plant for wood purpose. They will plant back the tree again.

IMPORTANCE OF TROPICAL
RAIN FOREST:

It is a huge store of
carbon. It is a habitat for animal and many plants. It also conserve soil
nutrient. Prevent large scale erosion. It is an estatic value. It is also an
large gene pool of plant resources.

CAUSES:

1)     
Agricultural
Expansion

 The major cause of deforestation is the conversion
of forests into agricultural plantations. 
Driving industrial-scale producers to clear forests are at an alarming
rate because of the increase in global demand for commodities, such as soybeans
and palm oil. In 2008 Guinness World Records, the largest producer of palm oil
in Indonesia, was named the “Fastest Forest Destroyer. The depleted soil is not
able to produce the same biodiversity it was once even when efforts are made to
replenish barren plantations.

2)     
Livestock Ranching

Another contributor of
deforestation is forest clearing for livestock ranching. A top exporter of
beef, has lost an area of forest that is 3/4 the size of Texas in Brazil since
1990. The expanding this kind of deforestation, with the support of governments
such as in Brazil is because of strong global demand for beef.

3)     
Logging

Deforestation is also
caused by logging, including illegal logging. Illegal logging operations
provide short-term income for people whom are living on less than $1 a day in
Indonesia. People who depend on the forest, their livelihood will be destroyed
because of this kind of activity. One of the largest exporters of timber is Indonesia.
About 80% of timber is being exported illegally.  It between $10-15 billion dollars is
estimated that organized criminals will get from illegal logging per year.

4)     
Infrastructure
Expansion

 Deforestation can be caused by road
construction by providing an entryway to previously remote land. The road which
runs from Brazil to Peru, is a concern for conservationists as the 5,404-km
Interoceanic Highway road cuts a strip through the biodiverse Amazon
rainforest. Road expansions will lead to illegal logging and logging, without
permission from authorities the opportunists slash down trees. An influx of
settlers is then attracted when the land is cleared and disturbs the peace that
once reigned the small villages.

EFFECTS:

1)     
Atmospheric

Deforestation is the is
the major contribution to global warming. Deforestation causes the amount of
carbon dioxide increases in the atmosphere. A layer forms in the atmosphere
that traps sun radiation as the amount of carbon dioxide increases in the
atmosphere. Global warming is caused because this radiation gets covered to
heat. It is also known as greenhouse effect. The tress are trigger by
deforestation to releases carbon store. Almost 1.5 billion tons of carbon is
release by tress each year by tropical deforestation as predicted by scientist.

2)     
Biodiversity

It removes or affect the
bases of food web. Removes the habitat of many other species. Causes local
extinction of many other species. Causes local extinction of many other species.
The number of species or individuals decreases. Lower biomass and productivity
per hectare.

The biodiversity decline
as a result of deforestation. This causes many species of living organisms are
becoming extinct. The tropical rain forest contribute eighty percent of the
biodiversity and the forest support the habitat of wild life. The environment and
the biodiversity has degraded because of the removal of tress. We are losing an
average of 137 animal species, plants and insects every day because of rainforest
deforestation. To several endangered species, there is a serious threat.  Almost 90% of predicted extinctions is
estimated will take place within next 40 years.

3)     
Affects carbon and
nitrogen cycle

Causes less
photosynthesis. Less carbon dioxide is removed and more is added into
atmosphere. Decomposing fungi live in association with the roots of tree.

4)     
Soil

Soil lost rate is very
low in such forest. Two metric ton per square kilometre is approximated. Tress
cant bind to the soil together causes soil erosion as a result of
deforestation. Landslide may result if tress are removed from the steep of
slope.

5)     
Hydrological

Deforestation affects the
water cycle in the nature. With the help of roots, trees pull up ground water
and then release the water vapour into the atmosphere. The water vapour content
in the atmosphere will be reduced if tress are reduced. This will result in a
very dry climate. This can also lead to soil erosion which might lead to flood
or landslide. The water quantity in soil, atmosphere, or on the land can be
influence by the absence of tress. This can affect the ecological cycle.

 

 

WAYS TO OVERCOME:

1)     
Use Recycled
Items:

A consumer can purchase many
of recycled items, including shopping bags, toilet paper, books, and notebook
paper in today’s world. People should use recycled products. They must  make a conscious effort not to waste. This will
defiantly reduce the demand for new raw material.

2)     
Farming Practices:

 Deforestation can be stop by rotating crops by
those who plant crops at a farm. Use the same portion of land to plant
different crops. Soil fertility can be maintain by using this method. Hydroponics
and high-yield hybrid crops may be used by farmers which relies on a method of
growing plants using mineral nutrient solutions instead of soil.

3)     
Cut Back on Palm
Oil:

Amount of trees are cut
down in order to generate the palm oil used in the production of some shampoos,
chocolates, and bread is increasing in Indonesia and Malaysia. This causes the
native orangutans to lose their habitat. You should limit your consumption of
products containing this type of oil and spread awareness.

CONSERVATION OF FORESTS:

1)     
In-situ
conservation

The conservation of
species in their natural habitats. The most appropriate way of conserving
biodiversity. It also conserving the area where population of species exist naturally
is an underlying condition for the conservation of biodiversity.

2)     
Ex-situ
conservation

The preservation of
components of biological diversity outside their natural habitats. It provides
an “insurance policy” against extinction. Maintain domesticated plants which
cannot survive in mature unalded. Provide excellent research opportunities on the
components of biological divertical. Institutions play s central role in public
education and awareness raising by bringing members of the public into contract
with plants and animals they may not normally come in contact with. Example of
method, gene banks (seed banks, sperm, ova banks, field banks), in vitro plant
tissue and microbial culture collections, captive breeding of animals and
artificial propagation of plants with possible reintroduction into world,
collecting living organisms foe zoos, aquarca and botanic gardens for research
and public awareness.

EXAMPLE:

1)     
Deforestation in Bolivia (refer appendix 10)

On the left is June 17,
1975. The middle photo is July 10, 1992. On the right is Aug. 1, 2000. 
NASA describes this area as tropical dry forest, located east of Santa Cruz de
la Sierra, Bolivia.

 

 

2)     
Madagascar

Madagascar is currently
struggling to supply food, adequate sanitation and fresh water, because of the rapidly
increasing population. The country has lost ninety-five percent of its
rainforests, which has led to degradation of water resources, desertification
and soil loss.

3)     
 Ethiopia:

In
the past fifty years, ninety-eight percent of the forested regions of the
country are gone. Fourteen percent alone were lost between 1990 and 2005. (refer
appendix 11)

 

EUTROPHICATION:

DEFINATION:

 Eutrophication is when the environment becomes
enriched with nutrients.

All living things need
specific nutrients to live. Because too many or too few can cause problems,
nature does a good job of providing the right amount of nutrients. This is true
in aquatic ecosystems because aquatic ecosystems are so dynamic. the water is
oligotrophic when too few nutrients are present. It makes sense that serious
problems will arise when there is not enough nutrition available for the
variety of organisms living in an aquatic environment.

However, problems can
also arise when the aquatic system has an overabundance of nutrients. We get
eutrophication when this happens. When too many nutrients, like nitrogen and
phosphorous, are present a eutrophic stream, river or lake occurs. usually as a
result of runoff from the surrounding land. Algae, plankton and other
microorganisms love these types of nutrients, and when they are plentiful, these
aquatic organisms can take over. It can have serious negative effects on other
organisms like birds, fish and even people, when river, lake or other aquatic
system becomes eutrophic.

HOW IT HAPPENS:

Excess of fertiliser from
agriculture land washed away by the rain water to the nearby pond  or water. The nutrient level in water
increases when accumulation of fertilisers in the water happens. This phenomena
is called eutrophication. This causes phytoplankton to grow and reproduce more
rapidly. This will result in algal blooms. The aquatic plants cannot carry out
photosynthesis because the sunlight is blocked by the algae. Sediment at the
bottom of the pond is formed when the aquatic plants and the algae die. This
effects the pond’s ecosystem and encourage the growth of detritus. All the
oxygen the water s used up by the detritus by carrying out decomposition. This
causes the biochemical oxygen demand(BOD) increases. Lack of oxygen in water
causes many aquatic organisms to die. Toxic bi-product that can poison the
ecosystem of the pond are produce by some species of algae.

 

 

 

HOW TO DETERMINE BOD:

1)     
A sample of water
is taken from a pond.

2)     
If the amount of
oxygen required for the decomposition of organic matter in the sample is high,
then BOD is high. This means the water sample from the pond is very highly
polluted.

3)     
BOD increases when
the water is very highly polluted by bacteria pollution.

4)     
BOD decreases when
the water is very highly polluted by toxic pollution.

CAUSES:

1)     
Fertilizers

Human actions causes
eutrophication. Human likes to depend on the usage of nitrate and phosphate
fertilizers. Lawns, golf courses, farm and other fields are to be heavily
fertilized by people. These fertilizers run off into streams, rivers, lakes and
oceans when it rain. The hungry algae, plankton and other aquatic plant life
are fed well. This increases the rate of photosynthesis activity. This causes
dense growth of plant life such as the water hyacinths and algal blooms in the
aquatic environments.

2)     
Concentrated
animal feeding operations

Main contributor of nitrogen
and phosphorus nutrients responsible for eutrophication is the concentrated
animal feeding operations (CAFOs). The concentrated animal feeding operations
normally discharge high scores of the nutrients. It somehow finds way into lakes,
streams, rivers, and oceans where they accumulate in very high concentrations. By
recurring cyanobacterial and algal blooms, thereby plaguing the water bodies.

3)     
Direct sewage
discharge and industrial waste into water bodies

In the developing
nations, sewage water is directly channel into water bodies such as oceans,
lake, and rivers. This results in, high amounts of chemical nutrients
introduced. This stimula the dense growth of other aquatic plants and algal
blooms which threatens survival of aquatic life in a lot of ways.

4)     
Aquiculture

A technique of growing
fish, aquatic plants without soil and shellfish in water containing dissolved
nutrients is known as aquiculture. Aquiculture it also qualifies a top ranking
contributor to eutrophication as it is highly practice in the recent times. The
unconsumed food particles together with the fish excretion will increase the
levels of phosphate and nitrogen in the water if aquiculture is not properly
managed. This will result in dense growth of microscopic floating plants.

5)     
Natural events

Eutrophication can also
cause by natural events. If a lake, river, or stream flood, it may wash away
any excess nutrients off the land and into the water. However, in areas that
are not surrounded by fertilized lands, eutrophication is less likely to occur.

 

 

EXAMPLE:

 Lake Erie was the most
publicized example of eutrophication in the 1960s and 1970s. it was called the
“dead lake”. From heavily developed agricultural and urban lands, the
smallest and shallowest of the five Great Lakes was swamped for decades with
nutrients. Plant and algae growth choked out most other species living in the
lake as a result. It  left the beaches unusable because of the smell of
decaying algae that washed up on the shores. (refer appendix 8)

EFFECTS:

1)     
Threatens the
survival of other aquatic life forms and fish

The other photosynthetic
plants and phytoplankton grow explosively when aquatic ecosystems experience
increase in nutrients. This is commonly known as algal blooms. This causes the
algal blooms to limit the amount of oxygen dissolved which is required for
respiration by other plant and animals species in the water. When the algae or plant
life die and decompose, oxygen depletion will occur. When hypoxic levels is
reached by the dissolve oxygen, the plant and animal species under the water
such as fish, shrimp, and other aquatic species suffocate to death. In extreme
cases, the growth of bacteria is encouraged by the anaerobic conditions that
produces toxins which are dangerous to the marine bird and mammals. Light
penetration into the lower depths of the water is reduced because of the growth
of phytoplankton. This causes loss of aquatic life, aquatic dead zones and it
also lessens biodiversity.

2)     
Limits access to
safe drinking water and deterioration of water quality  

Algal blooms are highly
toxic. The growth of more toxic bacterial is promoted when the water reaches
the anaerobic condition. This causes decline in the availability of clean
drinking water and extensive deterioration of water quality. Water systems is
block because of the dense growth of photosynthetic bacteria and algal bloom on
the surface of water. Hence, this limit the availability of piped water. Toxic
algal blooms have shut down many water supply systems across the world. For
example, in 2007, more than 2 million residents of Wuxi, China could not access
piped drinking water for more than a week because of the severe attack by algal
blooms on Lake Taihu. (refer appendix 9)

3)     
Endangers fishing

Increased growth of
minute floating plants such as photosynthetic bacteria and algae and the growth
of extensive and dense mats of floating plants such as water hyacinths and Nile
cabbage is one of the main characteristic of eutrophication. Fishing is
endangered whenever this happens on a water body. It will become difficult to
set the fishing nets in water when the plants are floating on water. This will
also limit the mobility of boats and other fishing vessels.

4)     
Degradation of
recreational opportunities

The blooming of other
aquatic plants and algal that float on an extensive area of the water surface
is the main problem of eutrophication. It reduces the navigation and
transparency in the water which lessens the recreational values and
opportunities of the lakes, especially for swimming and boating. Water
hyacinth, algal blooms, and Nile cabbage can spread over an extensive area
along the shores. It can sometimes float over the whole surface into the land
area.

5)     
Poisoning and
impact on human health

Dinoflagelates which
generates red tide is also referred as cyanobacteria, which release very
powerful toxins with high poison levels in the water. Explosive plant growth in
the water create anaerobic conditions which also results in the doubling of the
toxic compounds. Even at the least concentration when ingested in drinking
water, it causes death in animals and humans. Various negative health impacts
such as cancers can be cause when the toxic compounds can also make their way
up the food chain. Biotoxins are linked to increased diarrhoetic shellfish,
paralytic and incidence of neurotoxic in humans. This can lead to death. The
poison is accumulated in their muscles by shellfish and then poison humans upon
consumption. The ability of inhibiting blood circulation in infants is
associated with high nitrogen concentration in drinking water. This is a
condition known as blue baby syndrome. 

WAYS TO OVERCOME:

1)     
Composting

Use of nitrate and
phosphate fertilizers is the main cause of eutrophication. Composting can be used as a solution, in a bid to
address the phenomenon. The practice of converting organic matter such as
decaying vegetation and food residues into compost manure is known as composting. The high concentration of phosphates and
nitrates that feed the other microbes and algae in water bodies are the
deficient caused by the nutrients present in the compost manure. All the
essential elements are synthesized and broken down by the plants in compost
fertilizer thereby not creating the cycle of eutrophication. Nutrient
limitation is a term for this method of controlling eutrophication.

2)     
Reducing pollution

Limiting pollution is an effective
and easy method of cutting back on the amount of phosphate and nitrogen
discharged into water systems. Municipalities and big manufacturing companies
ought to desist from discharging waste into water systems and reduce pollution.
So this will reduce the amount of nutrients and toxins ending up in the waters
that feed the other microscopic organisms and algae. Nutrient content will be
reduced in the water systems if municipalities and industries can cap their
waste discharge and pollution to a lower level which can subsequently control
eutrophication.

3)     
Ultrasonic
Irradiation

The use of ultrasonic
irradiation is one such mechanism which has been exploited as an alternative
solution to manage and control algal blooming when it comes to eutrophication. Cavitations
is used to produces free radicals that destroy algae cells in this process. To determine
the uniqueness of its use in controlling the eutrophication problem, research
is still underway.

 

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