Different Types of Air Compressors
An air Compressor is one of the major energy consuming utilities in any industrial operation and are mainly classified in two types. The classification is based on their construction and operation features. The two main classification of Air Compressor are: 01) Positive Displacement Type 02) Dynamic Type. You will find details of each type from below description. 01) Positive Displacement Type Air Compressor. Positive displacement types compressor are those, who mechanically displace a fixed volume of air into a reduced volume. The constant volume can be delivered by compressor when operated at fixed speed.
The discharge pressure is determined by the system load conditions. If the consumption of air is more, then discharge pressure falls below the cut-off pressure & compressor works on load condition. This types of Air Compressor further classified as A) Reciprocating Air Compressor. In this type, compressed air is generated by to & fro movement of piston inside the cylinder(compression chamber). Each movement compresses a fixed quantity of free air at a specific pressure. Single stage, double stage or multiple stage and single acting or double acting is the further classification of Reciprocating Air Compressor.
A Vertical type Air Compressor is use for the application of compressed air ranging in between 50 to 150 c. f. m and the Horizontal balance type is most suitable for application ranging from 200 to 5000 c. f. m. B) Rotary Air Compressor. In this type, air is compressed by two rotating or inter meshing rotors. According to the type of construction Rotary Compressor can be further classified as (a) Rotary Screw Compressor (b) Rotary Vane compressor. (a) Rotary Screw Compressor. Air is compressed between two rotating screw (male & female screw) and casing.
The compression took place in gradually reducing space between these two parts. (b) Rotary Vane compressor. Air is compressed between casing & rotating rotor by the help of movable rotor blade. This type of Air Compressor can be further classified as Single Stage or Double Stage Rotary Air Compressor. 02) Dynamic Type Air Compressor. The Dynamic Type Air Compressors mechanically impart velocity to the air. This action is produced by the Impellers rotating at a high speed, in enclosed casing. The air is forced into a progressively reduced volume.
The volumetric flow will vary inversely with the differential pressure across the compressor. This type of compressor is further classified as (a) Centrifugal Air Compressor (b) Axial Flow Air Compressor (c) Roots Blower Compressor. (a) Centrifugal Air Compressor. In a Centrifugal Air Compressor, an Impeller is mounted on a shaft and positioned within housing, consisting of an inlet duct, a volute and a Diffuser. The velocity to the air can be impart by the high speed rotation of Impeller. The Diffuser surrounds the Impeller and act to convert the Kinetic energy of air into potential energy at a higher pressure level. b) Axial Flow Air Compressor. The Axial Flow Type Air Compressor is essentially a large capacity, high speed machine with characteristics quite different from the centrifugal air compressor. Each stage consist of two row of blades, one row rotating & the next row of blade is stationery. The rotor blades impart velocity and pressure to the air as the motor turns, the velocity being converted to pressure in stationery blades. (c) Roots Blower Compressor. This type is generally called as blower. The discharge air pressure obtained from this type of machine is very low.
The Discharge Pressure of 1 bar can be obtained in Single Stage and pressure of 2. 2 bar is obtained from Double Stage. The discharge pressure achieved by two rotors which have separate parallel axis and rotate in opposite directions. This is the example of Positive Displacement Compressor in Rotary Type Air Compressor. I am Mechanical Engineer by profession & an owner of firm”P. N. Engineering Services”. As I spend many years in service industry,helping other people is now becomes my nature. I have vast experience about air compressor, any one who is interested to know more about air compressor can visit below site.