DIGESTIVE smaller pieces for us to swallow. In


The digestive
system is made up of  

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Oral cavity 

Pharynx Oesophagus stomach Small
intestine Large intestine 

Liver Pancreas Gall bladder  The whole
process of digestion begins in our oral cavity, this is as soon as our food
enters our mouth. Whilst we are chewing our food our teeth are breaking down
the food into smaller pieces for us to swallow. In addition to this our saliva
also helps to breakdown food as it contains enzymes which help the chemical
breakdown of food.  The Pharynx
is part of our throat and is behind our mouth and nasal cavity but is above the
Oesophagus. The Pharynx allows the swallowed food to enter the Oesophagus. The
Pharynx is also part of the respiratory system. During the process of
swallowing the muscular walls help move the food through to our oesophagus. The
Pharynx is a pathway for the movement of our food to our oesophagus.  The stomach
is a muscular organ that is located on the left-hand side of the upper abdomen
and also connected to our oral cavity via our Oesophagus. Our stomach holds
hydrochloric acid and enzymes such as protease to chemically break down our
food. Due to regular muscle contractions our stomach rumbles when it is empty.
This is called segmentation, this is a never-ending process. The food in our
stomach is eventually turned into something called chime, it is
passed through to our Duodenum. Depending on how much has been eaten it may
take from 40 minutes to 3 hours for it to be passed through. On an average scale the adult stomach
can secure 1 litre of food and water. At the beginning and end of our stomach
are muscular rings called sphincters. Sphincters help the stomach to hold our
food in. The oesophageal sphincter does not need a lot of pressure for the food
to exit the stomach however this is different for the food to leave our stomach
and go back into our oesophagus. This is known as vomiting and the process of
it going back into our oesophagus takes roughly 16 minutes. Each of the
above work together to help the breaking down of our food. The small intestine
is broken down into three sections, these are called the Duodenum, Jejunum and
the Ileum. The inner walls are coated in very tiny microvilli, microvilli are
tiny hairs. These hairs allow a large amount of nutrients to be absorbed in the
lining of the small intestine. 90% of the digestion happens in the small
intestine, this leaves the other 10% to take place in the large
intestine.  The beginning
of the small intestine is the Duodenum. Food from our stomach is combined with
enzymes which come from our pancreas, this breaks down the food into molecules
that can be absorbed. Bile is released from our gallbladder which is produced
by our Liver, this helps neutralise the acid in our food when it first enters
the small intestine as it is very acidic. Our pancreas releases Amylase to
carry on the chemical breakdown of our food. The small intestine carries out
the chemical break down of food. Once the food
has been broken down into smaller pieces it is then passed down into the second
section which is called the Jejunum. This is where the further absorption of
nutrients takes place. The Jejunum also adds its own digestive juices. The Ileum is
the third portion of the small intestine. The Ileum finishes the final bits of
absorption, it absorbs the left over from the
Jejunum such as nutrients and soluble liquids. Similar to the inner walls of
the small intestine the Ileum has tiny villi on its surface which helps the
process of absorption take place.  The food is
passed through to the large intestine once it has been processed in the small
intestine. The large intestine is a 6 foot long muscular
tube. The muscular tube connects the small intestine with the rectum. Just like
the small intestine the large intestine has many different parts to it such as
the ascending colon this includes the cecum and appendix, the transverse colon
including colic flexures and transverse mesocolon, the
descending colon and the sigmoid colon which is an S shaped region of the large
intestine. The extraction of most the water from the food happens in the large
intestine. In addition to this the large intestine gives out liquid to the
body. The remainder of minerals go through the colon and exit the body as
faces. The faeces are made to exit our body by frequent muscle contractions the
contractions are known as peristalsis, these contractions also happen in our
oesophagus to move our food into the small intestine. The large intestine
contains 700+ different types of bacteria. Some of the bacteria produce
vitamins which the large intestine can absorb, on the other hand other produce
gases. In addition to this the smaller our appendix is the more likely you are
to develop appendicitis which can cause a lot of trouble such as pressure for
doctors and nurses to allow you to keep your appendix.   The liver is
the largest internal organ in our body. It is located in the right upper section
of the abdomen. The liver just like many other organs is protected by our ribs.
The livers main job is to filter the blood from our digestive tract before it
enters the rest of our body. The liver produces proteins that are important for
blood clotting and other functions in our body. The bile that is released from
our gallbladder is produced by our liver however, the gall bladder helps
regulate how much is released and how often it is released into the small
intestine.  The pancreas
is located in the abdomen and is the size of a hand. In addition to this the
pancreas is connected to the Duodenum. The pancreas is one of the most
important parts of digestion as it let out lots of enzymes into the small
intestine where most work is done to help digest our food properly. The
pancreas is also important as it releases hormones such as insulin and glucagon
into our blood stream. The hormones that are released also help regulate our
metabolism. It also controls the blood sugars this is because the glucagon turns
glycogen back into glucose which can be mixed into the blood. 90% of our
pancreas is used for producing digestive enzymes, the enzymes are produced by
cells within our pancreas called acinar cells. These enzymes help make
carbohydrates, fats and proteins smaller. The pancreas also creates its own
juice known as pancreatic juice, this helps the pancreatic enzymes function

Cardiovascular system

The cardio
vascular system includes  

The heart 

Our blood 

Blood vessels The heart is
located behind the breast bone and slightly to the left. A common fact people
know about the heart is that it is the size of your clenched fist and is a
muscular organ. Our heart is made up of 4 different parts these are called
chambers.  At the
top of our heart is the left and right atrium. The two atriums put together are
called atria’s, the atriums
both fill with blood that is coming back from our lungs. At the bottom of our
heart underneath our left and right atria’s are our left and right ventricles. Our left and right ventricles
release blood that is pumped to our lungs and around our body. Just like our
nose our heart is separated by a thick wall of muscle called a septum, this
separates the right and left sides. The left side of the heart is where the blood
enters deoxygenated. Deoxygenated blood is pumped to the lungs and then returns
to the right side of our heart oxygenated and is then pumped around the body.
Oxygenated blood is pumped around the body and is used by muscles and other
organs. The right side of our heart is the side that pumps out de-oxygenated
blood and the left side pumps out oxygenated blood.  Our blood
vessels are arteries, veins and capillaries. Arteries are made up of
non-elastic fibres, muscle and lumen. Due to the blood leaving the heart at a
very high pressure the arteries have to have a thick muscular wall in addition
to this, the thick muscular wall helps force the blood along by contracting.
Our arteries carry mostly oxygenated blood away from our heart to the rest of
our body.  On the other
hand, our veins have non-elastic fibres however they are still muscular and
still have lumen in them. As a pose to arteries veins have a thinner and less
muscular wall because the blood is at a lower pressure in the veins then it is
inside the arteries. Our veins have something called valves inside them, this
is to prevent the back flow of blood. We have 4 different valves, these are
aortic valve, mitral, pulmonary valve and the tricuspid valve. The pulmonary
valve and the aortic valve work together to control the flow of blood out of
the ventricles. The tricuspid valve and the mitral valve also work together to
control the flow of blood from the atria into the ventricles. The blood in our
veins is carried from the rest of our body to our heart this means our veins
carry mostly deoxygenated blood as all the oxygenated blood has been used by
our muscles and other organs.   Our
capillaries are the smallest vessels in our body. They are the surface where
the nutrients and oxygen are transferred into other tissues from our
bloodstream, this is known as diffusion. Our capillaries are the reason our
arteries and veins connect. Capillaries carry both oxygenated and deoxygenated
blood.  The
blood exits our heart in vessels called arteries and comes back to our heart
through our veins which are also vessels. Once the blood has returned to our
heart it is then sent back to our lungs to put air into our blood after this
happens the blood then travels back to our heart to be pumped back around our




muscular skeletal system is known for its protection and its support and
movement. The muscular skeletal system is made up of our body’s larger bones
and muscles in addition to this our joints such as elbows and knee caps are part
of this system too as they allow movement in our body. The muscular skeletal
system gives our body good structure, without the muscular skeletal system our
body would be all flabby and out of shape and vital organs will not be
protected. Our actual bones are made up of hard bone, soft bone and bone


out-side layer of our bone is a thin closely compacted substance that holds our
blood and nerve vessels that supplies our bone with the right nourishment to
grow and maintain health this layer is called the Periosteum. The next layer is
typically known has the ‘hard’ layer, this is the layer you see on the human
skeleton. The next layer is made up of bones that are still very strong but not
as hard as a compact bone, in addition to this this layer contains cancellous
bones. Cancellous bones provides a
layer of protection for the inner bone. Inside the bone is bone marrow which is
similar to a thin jelly substance, its job is to produce blood cells. Almost
every bone in our body is produced of the same thigs.


 A joint is where two bones fit into another
bone which is rounded, the rounded shape holds the bone to be held securely
which enables movement. Muscles are attached to our bones by something called a
tendon, a tendon is made up of strong fibrous tissue. Similar to a tendon a
muscle is a bundle of strong fibrous tissues. Muscles give our body powerful
body strength e.g power to run.  


Many different parts of the muscular skeletal system protects different body
organs. The brain and its soft tissues are both protected by the Cranium which
is also known as the skull. In addition to this, the heart and lungs are
protected by our 12 pairs of ribs.  


Our body is enables to move due to the fact our bones, muscles and joints work
as one to allow us to walk, sprint and run. In addition to this the Vertebrae
is a vital bone that allows us to bend, stretch and rotate our body. Our
muscles produce muscular contractions that cause our bones to move which
results in physical action. Our bottom jaw-bone is jointed to the cranium which
enables us to perform a chewing process.  


All 206 bones in our body work together to support our body day by day. The
vertebrae supports our
head along with giving us a good back structure. Our leg bones are extremely
strong as they hold up our body weight to support our upper body. 






MAJOR MUSCLES IN OUR BODY:                                   



Latissimus dorsi 












Endocrine system

This system is made up of glands
that produce and release hormones in our body.in addition to this the endocrine
system produces and releases chemicals that controls and balances the activity
of our organs and cells. The hormones that are produced by the endocrine system
control the body’s growth and development, metabolism, sexual behaviour,
reproduction and sleeping patterns.

The endocrine system is made up

Hypothalamus- The hypothalamus gland is a small gland that contains a number
of tiny nuclei this gland regulates body temperature, sex drive, hunger &
thirst, mood swings, sleeping patterns. In addition to this the Hypothalamus is
a section within the brain therefore this part of the brain is home to the
Pituitary gland and other glands within our body. The hypothalamus gland links
our endocrine system to the nervous system, it is linked to the nervous by our
pituitary gland.Pituitary gland- The pituitary gland is found just below the Hypothalamus gland
which is found in a section within our brain. This gland is the size of a pea.
The pituitary gland and the hypothalamus gland are both attached by nerve
fibres. This certain gland produces vital hormones which are chemicals that
control other bodily functions.Thyroid- Along with other glands in the endocrine system the thyroid
gland produces that also regulate our body’s metabolism. Along with regulating
the body’s metabolism the thyroid glands also regulates the body’s heart rate,
digestion activity, control of our muscles, brain growth & development and
bone maintenance. parathyroidsAdrenal glandPineal bodyReproductive
glands Pancreas

major organs in our endocrine system are highlighted above in yellow.