Does parents to influence the individual differences that

Does our behavior come from our parents or the friends we surround ourselves with? We might get physical appearance features from our mother and father like hair color and eye color. Yet, we don’t have the same talents and dislikes as our parents. The way we talk might change as we move to another location or different groups of people. These all lead back to one of the oldest debate within the field of psychology- Nature or Nurture? The idea that genetic factors influence who we are versus the environmental variables that impact who we are. This research paper will look back at the history of this debate, how psychologists had different points of view, finding out what is nature and nurture followed by evidence and research methods to help identify. !!Next, the different types of research and combination of nature and nurture. This controversy goes back to 1869 when it was labeled “Nature Vs. Nurture” by Francis Galton. Just like any debate, there are two opposing sides which are nativists and empiricists. Nativists were believers that genetic traits are handed down from parents to influence the individual differences that make each person unique. From this perspective, our behaviors are the result of evolution. On the other hand, empiricists stood behind the idea that most behaviors and characteristics are from learning. From this point of view, everyone is born with a tabula rasa (blank slate) and it fills with experience as they grow. Even before 1869, philosophers during the late 1700s tried to understand behavior like John Locke and G.W. Leibniz. These philosophers would write books based on their belief to prove their perspective and disprove other theories. Locke as an empiricist examined different human processes like reasoning and logic as an argument. This argument was followed by the question of how it was possible to use human processes if people were born with all the knowledge they would ever acquire (cite). Leibniz as a nativist, innate factors is the reason people are the way they are. Leibniz argued that there are no way ideas which come into the mind from outside can be formed into beliefs and judgments without the operation of specific internal mechanisms (cite). Today, many different branches of psychology take either nature or nurture approach. Extreme nature positions like Bowlby’s theory of attachment shows that the bond between a mother and her child is an innate process that ensures survival. Another theory is Thanatos by Sigmund Freud which is an innate desire for self-destruction by doing risky acts. In contrast, extreme nurture positions like Albert Bandura’s social learning theory shows that aggression was learned through observation and imitation using his Bobo doll experiment. Including, B.F. Skinner who believed that language is learned from other people through behavior shaping techniques, known as operant conditioning. It’s hard to accept either extreme position since it would turn to be an “all or nothing” view.  Instead, we can look at these extreme positions as equals and see which influence is more important?One known factor is the coding of genes determine physical features that we have as in our eye color, height, hair color, weight, and other features. However, attributes like intelligence, attitude, sexual orientation, phobias, likes and dislikes aren’t known to be gene-coded in our DNA. As stated before, Bowlby’s theory of attachment takes on the side of nature. This point of view believes that babies are born to display certain innate behaviors like crawling, crying, and giggling to help ensure proximity and contact with the mother or attachment figure. (cite) Bowlby came up with a hypothesis that the mother and child have evolved a biological need to stay in contact with each other. However, maternal deprivation can have a role in the child’s future behavior. Long-term consequences of maternal deprivation include delinquency, reduced intelligence, increased aggression, depression, affectionless psychopathy. (cite) The medical model of mental illness is also classified as evidence for nature. The biological approach to the medical model believes that disorders have a physical cause. The focus of this approach is on genetics and it argues that mental disorders are related to the physical structure and functioning of the brain.Nurture shares the idea of a behaviorist approach. The role of environmental factors in influencing behavior, excluding inherited factors. One piece of evidence behind nurture is the learning theory where people gain knowledge through experience or by being taught. Under this theory is classical conditioning and operant conditioning.  The classical conditioning involves learning a new behavior during the process of association. There are three stages of this process: before conditioning, during conditioning, and after conditioning. Before conditioning, a stimulus in the environment has produced a behavior that they haven’t learned previously (unconditioned stimulus) and therefore is a natural response that hasn’t been taught to them (unconditioned response). Also, there is a neutral stimulus that has no effect on the person during this stage. During conditioning, the unconditioned stimulus is associated with the neutral stimulus on a number of occasions which becomes the conditioned stimulus. After conditioning, the conditioned stimulus is paired with the unconditioned stimulus to create a new conditioned response. Operant conditioning is more focus on the causes of an action and its consequences to understand behavior. There are punishment and reinforcement also the positive and negative type of each. Punishment is used to stop or weaken behavior rather than having it to happen again. Positive punishment works by presenting an unwanted stimulus after an undesired behavior is exhibited while negative punishment happens when the desired stimulus is removed after an undesired behavior is exhibited. Reinforcement is used to strengthen behavior and more likely to occur again. Positive reinforcement works by presenting a desired stimulus to strengthen behavior while negative reinforcement is the removal of an unpleasant stimulus, so the behavior is more likely to occur again.Other evidence that supports nurture over nature is found in our everyday society. Social roles are one where people are expected to play their part in society


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