Procedure 1: Energy of a cashew. Recorded Data: | Trial 1| Trial 2| Trial 3| Trial 4| Trial 5| Mass of cashew (in grams)| 1. 00 g (± 0. 01 g)| 1. 00 g (± 0. 01 g)| 1. 70 g (± 0. 01 g)| 1. 40 g (± 0. 01 g)| 1. 50 g (± 0. 01 g)| Mass of remaining material (in grams)| 0. 60 g (± 0. 01 g)| 0. 30 g (± 0. 01 g)| 0. 30 g (± 0. 01 g)| 0. 50 g (± 0. 01 g)| 0. 80 g (± 0. 01 g)| Mass of cashew that burned (in grams)| 0. 40 g (± 0. 01 g)| 0. 70 g (± 0. 01 g)| 1. 0 g (± 0. 01 g)| 0. 90 g (± 0. 01 g)| 0. 70 g (± 0. 01 g)| Volume of liquid water (in mL)| 59 mL | 54 mL| 104 mL| 31 mL| 15 mL| Mass of liquid water (in grams)| 59 g| 54 g| 104 g| 31 g| 15 g| Calculations: The mass of a particular amount of a substance is equal to the product of the volume of that amount and the density of the substance. Mass = Volume x Density The density of water is 1. 0 g/cm3, so it is assumed that the volume of water in mL will be equal to the mass of the water in g. 1 mL H2O = 1 g H2O For example, in trial 1,

Volume of liquid water = 59 mL * Mass of liquid water = 59 g Observations: 1. While the cashew was burning, the flame barely rose above the nut. 2. The cashew burned for a long duration of time (about 2 minutes). 3. The cashew was completely black (charred) and brittle after it was entirely burnt. Processed Data: | Trial 1| Trial 2| Trial 3| Trial 4| Trial 5| Heat produced by the burning cashew (in cal)| 4720 cal| 4320 cal| 8320 cal| 2480 cal| 1200 cal| Heat produced by 1 gram of cashew (in cal)| 11800 cal| 6171. 43 cal| 5942. 86 cal| 2755. 56 cal| 1714. 29 cal |

Kilocalories of heat from 1 gram of cashew| 11. 80 kcal| 6. 17 kcal| 5. 94 kcal| 2. 76 kcal| 1. 71 kcal| Note: All decimal values are approximated to two decimal values. Calculations: The heat produced by the burning cashew was calculated by the equation: qcashew = mwater x 80 cal/g where: qcashew = heat produced by the cashew in calories mwater = mass of the water in grams 80 cal/g = the heat of fusion of ice (the heat needed to melt one gram of ice) For example, in trial 1, mwater = 59 g * qcashew = 59 g x 80 cal/g * qcashew = 4720 cal Correlation = 0. 202914

The heat, in calories, generated by one gram sample of the cashew is calculated by the equation: q= qcashewmcashew where: q = heat generated per gram of sample in calories qcashew = heat produced by the burning cashew in calories mcashew = mass of the cashew that burned in grams For example, in trial 1, qcashew = 4720 cal mcashew = 0. 40 g * q= 4720 cal0. 40 g * q = 11800 cal The nutritional calories or kilocalories was calculated by dividing the heat generated by 1 gram of sample by 1000. kilocalories (kcal)= q1000 cal/kcal where: q = heat generated per gram of sample in calories

For example, in trial 1, q = 11800 cal * kilocalories= 11800 cal1000 * kilocalories=11. 80 kcal Procedure 2: Energy of a walnut. Recorded Data: | Trial 1| Trial 2| Trial 3| Trial 4| Trial 5| Mass of walnut (in grams)| 2. 29 g (± 0. 01 g)| 2. 20 g (± 0. 01 g)| 2. 70 g (± 0. 01 g)| 2. 00 g (± 0. 01 g)| 3. 00 g (± 0. 01 g)| Mass of remaining material (in grams)| 0. 29 g (± 0. 01 g)| 0. 49 g (± 0. 01 g)| 1. 20 g (± 0. 01 g)| 0. 30 g (± 0. 01 g)| 0. 80 g (± 0. 01 g)| Mass of walnut that burned (in grams)| 2. 0 g (± 0. 01 g)| 1. 71 g (± 0. 01 g)| 1. 50 g (± 0. 01 g)| 1. 70 g (± 0. 01 g)| 2. 20 g (± 0. 01 g)| Volume of liquid water (in mL)| 54 mL| 50 mL| 36 mL| 12 mL| 69 mL| Mass of liquid water (in grams)| 54 g| 50 g| 36 g| 12 g| 69 g| Calculations: The mass of a particular amount of a substance is equal to the product of the volume of that amount and the density of the substance. Mass = Volume x Density The density of water is 1. 0 g/cm3, so it is assumed that the volume of water in mL will be equal to the mass of the water in g. mL H2O = 1 g H2O For example, in trial 1, Volume of liquid water = 54 mL * Mass of liquid water = 54 g Observations: 1. While the walnut was burning, the flame barely rose above the nut. 2. The walnut burned for a long duration of time (about 2 minutes). 3. The walnut was completely black (charred) and brittle after it was entirely burnt. Processed Data: | Trial 1| Trial 2| Trial 3| Trial 4| Trial 5| Heat produced by the burning walnut (in cal)| 4320 cal| 4000 cal| 2880 cal| 960 cal| 5520 cal| Heat produced by 1 gram of walnut (in cal)| 2160 cal| 2339. 18 cal| 1920 cal| 564. 1 cal| 2509. 09 cal | Kilocalories of heat from 1 gram of walnut| 2. 16 kcal| 2. 34 kcal| 1. 92 kcal| 0. 56 kcal| 2. 51 kcal| Note: All decimal places are approximated to two decimal places. Calculations: The heat produced by the burning walnut was calculated by the equation: qwalnut = mwater x 80 cal/g where: qwalnut = heat produced by the walnut in calories mwater = mass of the water in grams 80 cal/g = the heat of fusion of ice (the heat needed to melt one gram of ice) For example, in trial 1, mwater = 54 g * qwalnut = 54 g x 80 cal/g * qwalnut = 4320 cal Correlation = 0. 662783

The heat, in calories, generated by one gram sample of the walnut is calculated by the equation: q= qwalnutmwalnut where: q = heat generated per gram of sample in calories qwalnut = heat produced by the burning walnut in calories mwalnut = mass of the walnut that burned in grams For example, in trial 1, qcashew = 4320 cal mcashew = 2. 0 g * q= 4320 cal2. 0 g * q = 2160 cal The nutritional calories or kilocalories was calculated by dividing the heat generated by 1 gram of sample by 1000. kilocalories (kcal)= q1000 cal/kcal where: q = heat generated per gram of sample in calories

For example, in trial 1, q = 2160 cal * kilocalories= 2160 cal1000 * kilocalories=2. 16kcal Average heat generated per gram of cashew = 5. 676 kcal Average heat generated per gram of walnut = 1. 898 kcal Procedure 3: Energy of a ‘cheetoh’ Observations: 1. While the ‘cheetoh’ was burning, the flame rose very high (1-2 inches). 2. The ‘cheetoh’ only burned for a short period of time (less than a minute). 3. The ‘cheetoh’, after burning, was completely black and brittle. 4. There was a small yet noticeable decrease in the size of the ‘cheetoh’ after burning.