culture in the world has its own type of music and each of them attaches
different meaning and value to it. Music is an expression of people from
different societies which focuses on their own various types of instruments and
unique methods of playing on them, so music seems to be one of the basic
actions to people, their thoughts and feelings. Furthermore, the involvement of
community in every culture has evolved the music in an exceptional way to one
another. When world cultures contact each other, they obviously also impact to
their music respectively, such as American, Scottish, English and others do. In
one point of view, it is hard to say if music impacts culture or culture
impacts the music; that is how community is deeply bounded with music. Many
researches and tests were made to evaluate the importance and usefulness of
music as to the personality and culture as whole. In addition, music interacts
with all sides of human life; therefore, plus it impacts aspects, such as
person’s cognition, mood, memory, stress response, psychological issues and
of all, the role of music cannot be overestimated and it can be properly seen
from modern history. For instance, Albert Einstein is known as one of the
smartest men who have ever lived, but his teachers thought that he is lack of
talent in all respects. As it turned out, his parents bought him a violin,
which made him a good violinist and further Einstein figured out his problems
and equations by improving his playing. Also, music helped Thomas Jefferson to
figure out the right words for the Declaration of Independence, he played the
violin, which got the words from his brain onto the paper (O’donnell, 1999). Thus,
music influences society for decades and it is seen that at first it reflects
in development of personality. What are the main influences regarding this?
According to the scientists, there are a few aspects, which could be positive
and negative ones.
power of music is very intriguing in relation of the memory. For instance,
O’Donnell found (1999) “Mozart’s music and baroque music, with a sixty beats
per minute beat pattern, activate the left and right brain”. As consequence,
the brain action enhances learning and retention of information. In addition,
activities which include left and right sides of the brain at the same period,
causes the brain abilities to process information much better.
Center for New Discoveries in Learning found, that listening this sixty per
minute music can increase the capacity of memory a minimum of five times. Dr.
George Lozanov, a Bulgarian psychologist, came up a system of learning a
foreign language using certain classical music from baroque period (O’donnell,
1999). He has proven that students can learn up to one half of the vocabulary
and phrases for the whole semester in one day, recalling the knowledge of most
100% even after several years.
The previous finding says that Mozart’s
sonatas can also improve test scores of students, if they listen it before the
test. This type of music helps to release neurons in the brain, in order the
body to relax.
Effect of Music on
Cognition and Mood
to the study, which is made by University of Miami, cognitive performance and mood
are affected by music. The researchers, after a 3-week study on twenty four
workers on highly stressful job, found out that the mood is significantly
improved with the presence of music during work hours, especially: the time
pressure, unrealistic deadlines, volume of learning requirements, co-worker
problems and so on. In addition, as measured, cognitive performance of people is
higher in those 3 music weeks. There are many comments given in regards to the
influence of music on stress included that it was a calming, relaxing and
simply helpful for focusing on the task (Lesiuk, 2000).
listening causes the short-term cognitive benefits, but research by
Schellenberg (2005) showed, that music lessons from childhood lead to long-term
cognitive improvements. This might be special in the regard because: music
lessons are school-like activity; different skills are trained; music improves
abstract reasoning and gaining musical knowledge is similar to acquiring a
second language (Schellenberg, 2005).