Factors prestige as one of the components of
Factors Effecting Socioeconomic Status
Educational attainment corresponds to the SES because it is a cross cutting phenomena for all individuals. An individual’s educational attainment is considered to be the bench mark for his overall achievement in life, reflected through his grades or degree.
Education plays a pivotal role in honing the skills of an individual that makes him/her a ready person to seek and acquire jobs, as well as specific qualities that stratify people with higher SES from lower SES. Annette Lareau speaks on the idea of concerted cultivation, where middle class parents take an active role in their children’s education and development by using controlled organized activities and fostering a sense of entitlement through encouraged discussion. Laureau argues that families with lower income do not participate in this movement, causing their children to have a sense of constraint. A division in education attainment is thus born out of these two differences in child rearing. In theory, lower income families have children who do not succeed to the levels of the middle income children, who feel entitled, are argumentative, and better prepared for adult life (Annette, 2003).
Occupational prestige as one of the components of SES comprises income and educational attainment. Occupational status corresponds to the educational attainment of an individual’s through which, obtaining better jobs, exploring and retaining better positions becomes inevitable and thus improvement in the SES. Occupational status consequently becomes an indicator for our social position/ status in the society, hence, describing job characteristics, decision making ability and emotional control, and psychological demands on the job (termed as emotional genius).
Occupations are ranked by the Census (among other organizations) and opinion polls from the general population are surveyed. Some of the most prestigious occupations are physicians and surgeons, lawyers, chemical and biomedical engineers, computer support specialists, and communications analysts. These jobs, considered to be grouped in the high SES classification, provide more challenging work and ability and greater control over working conditions. Those jobs with lower rankings were food preparation workers, counter attendants, bartenders and helpers, dishwashers, janitors, maids and housekeepers, vehicle cleaners, and parking lot attendants. The jobs that were less valued were also paid significantly less and are more laborious, physically hazardous, and provide less autonomy (Janny .David, 2005). Income
Income can be defined invariably as wages, salaries, profits, rents, and any flow of earnings received. However, another way of looking at revenue generation (income) is in the form of workers compensation, social security, pensions, interests or dividends, royalties, trusts, alimony, or other governmental, public, or family financial assistance.
Income can be looked at in two terms, relative and absolute. Absolute income, as theorized by economist John Maynard Keynes, is the relationship in which as income increases, so will consumption, but not at the same rate (Economy professor, 2008). Relative income dictates a person or family’s savings and consumption based on the family’s income in relation to others.
Income is a commonly used measure of SES because it is relatively easy to figure for most individuals.
Academic Achievement is defined as measurable behavior in a standardized series of tests (Simpson and Weiner. 1989). Achievement test is usually constructed and standardized to measure proficiency in school subjects. In most cases, according to them. “Accomplishment” is sometimes used in place of “achievement”. According to Bruce and Neville (1979) educational achievement is measured by standardized achievement test developed for school subjects.
Academic achievement is the outcome of education or the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their educational goals (Barnard, 2004). Furthermore, some authors define academic achievement as the level of schooling you have successfully completed and the ability to attain success in your studies (Epstein, 2001); while others refer academic achievement.
According to Good(1973), has defined, academic achievement as knowledge attitude or skill developed in the school subject usually designed by test scores or by marks assigned by teacher or by both. On the hand Academic achievement is one of the determinants of success in life. Students who achieve well academically have some advantages. Academic achievement serves as a key criterion in order to judge students’ true potentials and capabilities (Daulta, 2008, Nuthanap, 2007).
Academic Achievement assumes primary importance in the context of an education system aimed at progressive scholastic development of the child and human resources development at the macro level. Academic achievement is the core of the wider term i.e. educational growth. The importance of academic achievement in one’s life cannot be over emphasized. It acts as an emotional tonic. Sound academic records are the pillars on which the entire future personality stands. Academic achievement have always been the centre of educational research and despite varied definitions about the aims of education, the academic development of the child continue to be the primary and most important goal of education . Life in general and for a student in particular has become highly competitive. Today there is no place for a mediocre student. (Ramaswamy, 1990).
According to Chauhan, (1992), academic achievement is extremely essential at the upper socioeconomic level and relatively less essential at the lower level. Richmond (2001) pointed out that children from upper and middle socio-economic background achieve academically higher than children of LSB and this according to Boyles (2000) is due to inequality of resources among the rich, middle and poor children.
This section highlights review articles about Socioeconomic Status and Academic achievement that were published in different international journals. This literature also compares the findings of the articles since these studies were conducted in unlike situations according to the environment.
This study investigated the relationship between Socio?economic Status and Academic Achievement Trajectories from Childhood to Adolescence. The results of this study indicate a widening gap in mathematics Achievement between students of higher and lower SES families in Canada. This finding, consistent with the cumulative advantage theory, adds to the evidence that educational disparities associated with family background tend to increase as students advance in school. (Caro, McDonald, & Willms, 2009)
This meta-analysis reviewed the literature on socioeconomic status (SES) and academic achievement in journal articles published between 1990 and 2000. The sample included 101,157 students, 6,871 schools, and 128 school districts gathered from 74 independent samples. The results showed a medium to strong SES–achievement relation. This relation, however, is moderated by the unit, the source, the range of SES variable, and the type of SES–achievement Measure. The relation is also contingent upon school level, minority status, and school location (Sirin, 2005)
This study examined the effects of gender and socio-economic status on academic achievement of higher secondary school students of Lucknow city. This study shows that gender does not influence the achievement in science at higher secondary school level. Also the result of this study showed the difference between high and low socio-economic status groups. It is found that the academic achievement was influenced by the socio-economic status and those who belonged to high socioeconomic status showed better performance. Based on these findings some recommendation was given with great implication for both practice and further studies. (Barry, 2005)
This study addresses the increasing importance of student test scores by examining the different factors that influence student academic achievement. Composite test scores of tenth grade students from the educational longitudinal study of 2002 are examined using a four part model which includes student role performance, school, family, peer factors. Ordinary least squares analyze indicates that the strongest predictor of student academic achievement is socioeconomic. (Currie & Goodman, 2011)
This research was conducted to identify the relationship between home-based environment factors and the academic performance of students in selected secondary schools within a local government area in Kwara State. The data collected were analyzed using frequency count, percentage for variables such as age and sex. The hypotheses generated from the beginning were tested using t – test, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and pair – wise turkey test comparison at 0.05 level of significance. The findings showed positive relationship between socioeconomic status and academic achievement (Ogunshola & Adewale, 2012)
Another research was held to investigate the relationship between socioeconomic status and academic achievement. The questionnaires were filled in 15 minutes by students and were delivered to the researcher. It took three days to collect data by questionnaires. Based on these demographic data, participants of the study were classified into two groups: the mid/high socio-economic status group and the low socio-economic status group. Then, permissions were sought to gather participants’ GPAs. A conclusion that can be drawn from this correlation is that the relationship between SES and GPAs for the participants of this study was so that SES had remarkable relationship with GPAs. It shows that the participants with a mid/high SES had significantly lower GPAs than the participants with a low SES. This finding of the study is in line with the results of some previous investigations such as those done by Tang (2003), Pursely (2000) and Heck (1998) in that socio-economic status had main effects for academic achievement. (Ghaemi & Yazdanpanah, 2014)
The aim of this study was to assess the impact of parental socioeconomic status (SES) on students’ academic achievement in secondary schools. Two research objectives guided the study. They are: How does parents’ occupation, income, level of education and home environment affect students’ academic achievement in secondary schools? To what extent does parental involvement in education of their children enhance academic achievement? The study employed a qualitative research approach informed by a case study research design. A purposive sampling technique was used to obtain 60 informants drawn from amongst parents, teachers and students. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews and focused group discussions. Data were analyzed qualitatively using thematic analysis. The study found that majority of the students from the selected secondary schools is from low SES. The study established that there is a close relationship between SES and academic achievement. The study further found that majority of the parents is not involved in the learning of their children as well as in the school improvement programmes. (Kapinga, 2014)
This study was conducted to explore the basis or association of these decisions, measured by the potential connection between parental SES and emerging adults’ educational attainment..It has been well-documented by researchers that having a higher socio-economic status (SES) enables one to have greater access to an array of materials, goods, and services to promote or support academic achievement. The present study, using Forward Selection Step-wise Linear Regression and Chi-square analysis, examined the correlations between parents’ academic achievement, emerging adult children’s perception of their parents’ socio-economic status, and the educational attainment of the emerging adult children. The Family Investment Model (FIM), which outlines the positive correlation between SES and parental investments in children, served as the conceptual framework for this study due to the later prediction of educational attainment of emerging adults by the SES-dependent parental investment. Findings of the study indicated that there was a positive correlation observed between emerging adult educational attainment and the following variables: fathers’ academic achievement, mothers’ academic achievement, emerging adults’ perception of their parents’ SES, age, and gender. (Michelle & YoungClark, 2014)
This paper provides a preliminary review of concepts and studies related to social class, educational achievement and learning styles. An attempt is made to survey the literature pertaining to the complex relationships between social economic status and educational achievement and to set out the main arguments. It is primarily intended for the educator and the interested layman. (Bond, 2010)
The article is based on a study, which is an attempt to explore the various factors that have an impact on achievement, depending upon different socioeconomic status in the society and how does it affect the academic achievement of students. The study also examines the literature that reveals that the socioeconomic status of the parents can significantly contribute in the achievement of good grades at colleges. The paper illustrates the impact of income, occupation on educational attainment of students. The paper delineates the effect of many socioeconomic indicators on individual student achievement. (Saifi & Mehmood, 2011)
The present study focuses on the relationship between parent’s socioeconomic status and parental involvement strategies in their child’s education among Jordanian parents who have enrolled their children in governmental schools. The total sample of the present study was 150 Jordanian students who completed their education at governmental schools. The sampling design is based on purposive convenient method. A questionnaire technique was used to obtain quantitative data related to parental socioeconomic background and their involvement strategies in their children education from the selected parents. The results revealed that regardless of parental socioeconomic status the found to be involved in their children education. However, the educational level of the parents has greater impact on parental involvement strategies than parental occupation and income. As a result, the study provides findings and suggestions that can inform future research, family care agencies, educational institutions, social work agencies and interventions to the important of parental involvement and their role in helping their children to have better education. (Mohammad & Al-Matalka, 2014)
This study focused on high achieving minority students in order to gain deeper insight of factors that lead to high academic achievement of culturally diverse students (Hispanics and Blacks) from both high and low socio-economic groups. The data for this study included the 2012 CRCT of middle school students, and interview records with 4 students, 4 parents and 4 teachers. The findings showed positive relationship between socioeconomic status and academic achievement. (Ford, 2013)
The present study is an attempt to explore academic achievement and home environment as correlates of self-concept in a sample of 300 adolescents. The results of the study revealed self-concept to be positively correlated with academic achievement, though not significantly so. A significantly positive relationship of home environment components of protectiveness, conformity, reward, and nurturance with self-concept is revealed, thereby meaning that use of rewards and nurturance from parents should be done for positive self-concept development among adolescents (Kaur, Rana, & Kaur, 2009)
This research investigated the relationship between socioeconomic status and academic achievement. The authors examined multiple large data sets containing data on admissions and related tests, SES, and grades showing that SES is related to test scores. Thus, the vast majority of the test–academic performance relationship was independent of SES: The authors concluded that the test– grade relationship is not an artifact of common influences of SES on both test scores and grades. (Sackett, Kuncel, Arneson, Cooper, & Waters, 2009)
The purpose of this study is investigating the correlation between school quality and family socioeconomic background and students’ mathematics achievement in the Middle East. The study utilized data from IEA’s Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) of 2011. Analysis of the data used the hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) and the data was analyzed in two levels: student and school. Some variables, such as parents’ education and family economic status, show a weaker correlation with academic achievement compared to school resources, educational climate, and the number of enrolments of school. (Kareshki & Hajinezhad, 2014)
This paper describes the results of a detailed study relating the performance of undergraduate students admitted to the State University of Campinas from 1994 through 1997 and their socioeconomic and educational background. The study is based on a hierarchical model for the relevant variables involved. The main result is that students coming from disadvantaged backgrounds, in both educational and socioeconomic aspects, have a higher relative performance than their complementary group. (Memon, Joubish, & Khurram, 2010)
This article attempted to find out the impact of parental socio-economic status on the student’s Educational achievements at secondary schools of district Malir, Karachi. Data were collected through pre-designed and pre-constructed comprehensive questionnaire. It was found that there is a significant relationship between parents’ occupation and academic achievement. (J. N, Rita, & J.U, 2014)
This study investigated the influence of socio-economic background on self-concept and academic achievement of senior secondary (SS) school II students in Aguata education zone of Anambra State Nigeria. A sample of 300 SSII students was randomly selected from ten co-educational secondary schools. Instrument for the study was a questionnaire which was face validated as well as trial tested to determine its reliability. Data generated from the respondents were analyzed using Mean, Standard deviation and ANOVA statistics. Result of data analysis show that socio-economic background significantly influences self-concept and academic achievement of students. (Elhag, 2009)
The aim of this paper is to investigate the relationship between parents’ socioeconomic status and their children’s performance at school. The analysis methods used are cross tabulation and ‘small population proportion’ and regression. Most parents in the case sample have a secondary level education, and the education level of the fathers was slightly higher than that of the mothers. The analysis shows a positive association between the children’s school grades and their parents’ labor market status. (Ann, 2014)
The primary focus of the study is to analyze the effect of socioeconomic status on academic achievement by analyzing the scores of economically disadvantaged students on the state of texas Academic assessment of readiness exam. The result of this provided information to be utilized by school leaders ranging from teachers all the way up to superintendents and on through higher education to inform teacher preparation. (Singh & Singh, 2014)
This study deals with the relationship among the academic achievement of students and the socioeconomic status of parents in selected primary schools of Meerut district of Uttar Pradesh. The present study reveal that the socio-economic status of parents does not make significant effect on the educational achievement of students but the parental educational level health status of children has a significant role in determining the educational achievement and social adjustment of the children. Apart from these factors, the democratic environment at home and the availability of means of recreation play a significant role in the academic performance of students at primary level. (Ahmad, 2013)
Same study investigated the academic achievement of secondary school students in relation to their socio-economic status. The study was descriptive in nature and the secondary school students of District Anantnag of Jammu and Kashmir formed the population of the study. Sample was selected through simple stratified random sampling technique and 10% of the schools were selected which was 23 schools. 544 students were selected for sample through random table method. The investigator found that there is a significant mean difference between different categories of SES (upper, middle and lower). It was found that there was much difference in academic achievement and achievement of different school subjects of secondary school students and achievement increases with the increase in SES. (Faitar, 2013)
After reviewing these articles, most of the researchers found that socioeconomic status had great influence on academic achievement especially the contribution of (Kareshki & Hajinezhad, 2014). Socioeconomic Status indicated significant relationship with student achievement. With the light of the result socioeconomic status factor is the one that most impact positively on academic achievement. While others found no relationship between socioeconomic statuses on student achievement. However it is further research is needed to be conducted about the effect of socioeconomic status on academic achievement. Researchers generated the following hypothesis:
H1: there is significant relationship between parents’ education and academic achievement at Secondary Schools in Mogadishu, Somalia.
H2: there is significant relationship between parents’ occupation and academic achievement at Secondary Schools in Mogadishu, Somalia.
H3: there is significant relationship between parents’ income and academic achievement at Secondary Schools in Mogadishu, Somalia.