Findings by Disciplinary repositories (8.8%) and aggregating repositories

Findings

There
are 3402 repositories are functioning worldwide. Among them nearly half of them
are in Europe, followed by Asia (20.3%) and North America (17.8%). The country
wise analysis shows that United States (14.5%) has more number of repositories
followed by United Kingdom (7.4%) and Japan (6.3%). The major type of
repositories are Institutional repositories (85%) followed by Disciplinary
repositories (8.8%) and aggregating repositories (3.1%). Asia possesses 701
repositories. With in Asia Japan (31.7%) has the largest number of IRs followed
by India (11.2%) and Turkey (10.7%).

Type of Repositories

OpenDOAR
sketched five types of repositories namely Institutional,
Disciplinary, Aggregating, Governmental and Undetermined. Undetermined means a
repository whose type has not yet been assessed. The analysis found that
majority (84.8%) of the repositories in India is institutional repositories. There
are 10.1% disciplinary repositories and 3.8% are aggregating repositories are
also present in India.

Collection
size

The
collection of the IRs in India varies 60 to 170509 items. Shodhganga the
digital repository of Indian theses is the largest repository in terms of total
number of the documents. Shodhganga contains 170509 items followed by
Krishikosh an IR of Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) with 109034
documents and IR of Indian Academy of Sciences with 98454 documents. Table 1
illustrates five largest repositories in India with their number of contents.

Sl.no

Name
of the Repository

Name
of the Institution

No. of documents

1.     
 

ShodhGanga: A reservoir of Indian
theses

Information and Library Network Center
(INFLIBNET)

170509

2.     
 

KrishiKosh

Indian Council for Agricultural
Research (ICAR)

109034

3.     
 

Indian Academy of Sciences: Publications
of Fellows

Indian Academy of Sciences

98454

4.     
 

Open
Access Repository of IISc Research Publications

Indian Institute of Science (IISc)

44914

5.     
 

Archives of Indian Labour

V.V. Giri National Labour Institute

42845

Table
1 Largest Repositories in India

The
study also analysed top universities in India which made available open access
resources in their IRs. The study found that Indian institute of Science (IISc),
the number one university ranked by NIRF, India has the largest number of
documents in their IR named Open Access Repository of IISc Research
Publications ([email protected]). IISc is followed by eGyankosh repository of IGNOU
with 27847 documents and Osmania University (Osmania
University Digital Library), Telangana with 24506
documents.

Table 2 shows the size of Indian repositories. From the table it
is clear that only 2 repositories have more than one lakh collection and 29 per
cent repositories have less than 1000 documents. Nearly half of the
repositories hold 1000 to 10000 documents. 5 per cent repositories do not
mention the number of items in their IRs. In total, there are
848548 documents available in Indian IRs listed in OpenDOAR.

Sl.No.

No. of Items

No. of Repositories

Per cent

1

Below 1000

23

29.11

2

1000-10000

37

46.83

3

10000-25000

7

8.86

4

25000-50000

5

6.32

5

50000-100000

1

1.26

6

Above 100000

2

2.53

7

No. not specified

4

5.06

 

Total

79

100

Table 2 Size of Indian Repositories

Contents

There
are different types of contents comprising the repositories which included
journal articles, theses, conferences proceedings, books and unpublished
materials. Three quarter of repositories have Journal articles (74.68%). Another
most common content type is theses. Half of the repositories have theses
collection and conference proceedings constitute 46.83% repositories. Book chapters,
patents, datasets and multimedia audio visual materials are also included in
Indian repositories.

Scope

Majority of the repositories in the world take a multidisciplinary
approach. Among 79 repositories in India nearly half (46.83%) of them are multidisciplinary
in nature followed by Technology related subject fields (15.18%) and Chemistry
and Chemical Technology (11.39%).

Language
            The
contents of IRs in India include both English and regional languages. Out of 79
repositories 98.7 per cent cover English language. Other languages included
Hindi (12.6%), Gujarati (3.7%), Malayalam (2.53%), Arabic (2.53%) Kannada (2.53%)
 etc.

 

Software

Majority
of the repositories (58%) are using DSpace software. DSpace is an open source
software developed by Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Hewlett Packard
labs. Eprints is the another  major (32%)
software used by Indian repositories. Other software included Greenstone,
CALIBRE, Nitya etc. Figure1 shows software used by the Indian repositories.

Fig.1
Software use of Indian Repositories

Growth
of Repositories in India

The year wise growth of Indian IRs from 2006 -2017 is
illustrated in Fig.2. During this period the
repositories grew a steady peace. In 2006 there are only 8 repositories. In 2017
the number increased up to 79. During this ten year period the number of
repositories shows a ten times growth.

Fig.2 Year wise growth of Indian
IRs

Geographical Distribution

The 79 IRs in India were examined to understand their geographical
distribution. Out of 29 states in India 16 maintains IRs. Among 79 repositories
majority located in New Delhi and the state of Karnataka. Delhi and Karnataka
have 13 repositories each followed by Maharashtra (8) and Gujarat (7).

Conclusion

The open access movement is attaining significance for numerous
reasons. With regard to India, only 79 institutions have taken initiatives of
IRs. There are 813 universities in India and a number of research and
development institutions. Hence the academic and research institutions in India
have to take initiatives to build their repositories. Another important factor
is there are many institutions keep their IRS on Intranet. Those IRs are not
normally available via open access. Since the essence of IRs is to preserve
facilitate and access intellectual output of an institution, the performance of
Indian initiatives is not satisfactory.