From on the Peaceful Uses of Outer
From the beginning of the space exploration era, the United Nations acknowledged the significantrole that space-related knowledge and industrial science can play in bettering the human state in theworld.Efforts in the United Nations to prolong outer space as an area free of clashes and that is accessiblefor the advantage of all States commenced in 1957, just a few months before the takeoff of the firstartificial satellite into Earth orbit. Advanced propositions for banning the use of space for martial reasonsand the positioning of weapons of extreme demolition in outer space were contemplated from the late1950s to the early 1960s by the United Nations.The United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS) was initiated in1959, right after the launch of Sputnik (the first satellite to be placed in orbit. In 1959, it was officiallyfounded by United Nations resolution 1472.Definition of Key TermsLaunching StatesA launching state is any state that “launches or procures the launching of an object into outer space”.Launching states today include; China, the United States, Japan, Spain, Russia, India, and Brazil.National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)NASA is a US government controlled agency that is responsible for aerospace and aeronautic researchand science and technology related to space. NASA was established in 1958 from NACA (NationalAdvisory Committee for Aeronautics, created 1915) as a consequence of the space race between USand the Soviet Union during the 1950s.Dhahran Ahliyya Schools Model United Nations 2018 | 9th – 10st of February 2018Page 2 of 10 | Research ReportInternational Institute of Space Law (IISL)A worldwide alliance between different countries that aims to further develop legislation related tospace and to ensure the peaceful use of it for suitable purposes.SatelliteA man-made body launched in orbit around any planet (including earth) with the purpose to gather infoor for communication/interaction. Different types of satellites include; geostationary satellites,geosynchronous satellites, sun-synchronous satellites.AeronauticsThe science of studying, designing, manufacturing, and operating of rockets and aircrafts within theatmosphere.SputnikSputnik is the world’s first satellite ever launched by the Soviet Union on 4th of October 1957. Thislaunch instigated contemporary political, military, scientific, and technical expansions. Although thelaunch of Sputnik was only one occurrence, it indicated the beginning of the Space Race between theSoviet Union and the United States and the Space Era.Militarization of outer spaceSpace has been equipped since the first communication satellites were launched. Today, armedforces all around the world depend on these satellites as modes of authority and control, communication,observing, caution and navigation with the Global Positioning System. Thus, “peaceful use” of spacedoes incorporate martial uses that are not very “peaceful” such as using satellites to aim bomb attacks.Weaponization of outer spaceSpace weaponization is commonly defined as the positioning of destructive weapons in space.Various specialists even consider systems based on earth that are used to fight space-based attacks asa part of weaponization of space, although they are not physically present in the space orbit.Dhahran Ahliyya Schools Model United Nations 2018 | 9th – 10st of February 2018Research Report | Page 3 of 10Background InformationSteps to maintain outer-space as a realm free of conflict and open to the benefit of all states havebeen taken over the past few decades or so.Existing legal frameworkThe Outer Space Treaty was fully in force in 1967, after it was contemplated by the Committee on thePeaceful Uses of Outer Space and the General Assembly. The Contract offers the essential outline forglobal/ international space legislation. To be specific, it bans the positioning of any type of weapons ofextreme destruction (especially nuclear) in outer space and the placing of such weapons on celestialbodies. It also outlaws the creation of military headquarters, and experimenting any type of weapons.Additionally, it creates essential values and principles relating to the harmonious and conflict free use ofouter space. This incorporates that the exploration and use of outer space shall be in the advantage andthe welfares of all nations and that all astronomical bodies shall not be exposed to declarations ofsovereignty/rule.Private OrganizationsThe space sector is recently attracting much more interest and attention globally, as private andpublic investors search for the latest sources of financial development and invention, and spaceeconomy has been a significant field for technological advancement, profitable chances and tacticalpurposes. Over the past few years, private space sectors have expanded immensely. Almost a third ofall private space sectors in the world are based in the U.S, since it is one of the most space-activecountries throughout history.Space XAlready leading the world as the most prominent commercial space flight corporation, SpaceXremains to exhibit its methodological authenticity, reaching their latest turning points as notable as theyare manifold. Along with creating a more well-built workhorse Falcon 9 rocket (that have engines that are50% sturdier than normal), the company carried a sequence of experimental test flights of its”Grasshopper” rocket, which reached a maximum height of approximately 1,060 feet in June 2013 beforeunloading itself back on the Launch pad, instead of depositing in the ocean.XCOR AerospaceXCOR Aerospace is a developer in the expeditious evolution of rocket engines that aresustainable and reusable for payload and human transportation purposes. They make the dream ofreasonably priced space flight an actuality for clients, financiers and staffs. By evolving andmanufacturing extremely eco-friendly, inexpensive vehicles and engines with little service demands,Dhahran Ahliyya Schools Model United Nations 2018 | 9th – 10st of February 2018Page 4 of 10 | Research ReportXCOR offers platforms to noticeably upsurge the practicability of space missions and occasions withindifferent markets.Orbital ATKOrbital ATK Incorporated is an aerospace industrialist and protection manufacturing businessbased in Virginia, the United States. In 2015, it was created after merging Orbital SciencesCorporation and certain sectors of Alliant Techsystems. Orbital ATK fashions, manufactures andtransports space defense and aeronautics-related systems to clients globally as a main contractor, aswell as a commercial provider.Blue OriginBlue Origin is an American private aviation services establishment and aerospace creator foundedby Jeff Bezos. Its headquarters is in Kent, Washington. The corporation is elaborating machineries toallow exclusive individual admission to space with the purpose to vividly decrease budgets and be morereliable. Blue Origin is applying an incremental methodology from suborbital to orbital flying, with eachevolving stage based on its preceding work. Blue Origin is creating and implementing variousmechanisms, with an emphasis on Vertical Takeoff and Vertical Landing (VTVL) automobiles poweredby rockets for entry to orbital and suborbital space.Dhahran Ahliyya Schools Model United Nations 2018 | 9th – 10st of February 2018Research Report | Page 5 of 10Space EconomyThe space sector plays an essential role in the upsurge of the economy. The OECD Space Forumdefines space economy is defined as “the full range of activities and the use of resources that createvalue and benefits to human beings in the course of exploring, researching, understanding, managing,and utilizing space.” The necessary operations for spaceships and launchers are progressively beingbroadened globally; for example, Information Technology (IT) corporations are developing into satelliteoperators and an increase in private and small-scale satellite departures will cause the development andevolution of earth surveillance information.Major Countries and Organizations InvolvedThe United StatesThe US takes credit for roughly a third of the active space vessels that are present in orbitaround Earth today. The Apollo program, Space Shuttle, International Space Station (ISS), MarsExploration Rover, and the Skylab space station are all huge milestones in US space history. Its firstsatellite was launched in February of 1958 and till this day, is used for communication purposes,weather, electronic intelligence, surveillance, and navigation. The space exploration efforts of the countryare managed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).The United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Use of Outer Space (COPUOS)In 1959, the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS) was created by the UNGeneral Assembly to manage and administer the use and exploration of space, ensuring the benefit ofall humankind: for harmony, safety and growth. The Committee had the responsibility of revising globalcollaboration in peaceful usage of outer space, examining activities related to space that the UnitedNations may consider, encouraging space exploration projects, and solving legal problems relating toouter space. The Committee offers a one-of-a-kind global platform to observe and debate developmentsand evolutions in regards to the peaceful use of outer space.China”China is developing very rapidly into one of the major space players,” states Fabio Favata, the headof the Strategy Planning and Coordination Office Directorate of Science European Space Agency. Chinaapproximately expends 6 Billion US Dollars on its space mission every year. China possess andadministers the second to greatest number of spacecraft presently in orbit, managing numerous groupsof detecting satellites, navigation satellites, surveillance satellites, as well as communication satellites.Also, China is one of three nations that are capable of recuperating satellites.Dhahran Ahliyya Schools Model United Nations 2018 | 9th – 10st of February 2018Page 6 of 10 | Research ReportUnited Nations Office for Outer Space AffairsThe United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA) functions to actively support globalcollaboration in the harmonious investigation and use of space, and in the implementation of spacetechnology and knowledge for viable communal and financial evolution. The Office aids any UnitedNations Member State to create supervisory and judicial frameworks to administer outer space activities.Russian FederationThe roots of Russian space programs can be tracked all the way back up to 1957, which is whenSputnik 1, the world’s first artificial satellite took off by the Soviet Union. Currently, the nation owns andmanages one of the largest fleets of spacecraft including climatological, communications, andexploration satellites. Achievements include Salyut 1 space station, Soyuz manned spacecraft, andLunokhod 1 space rover. The Russian Federal Space Agency (Roskosmos) runs civilian space activities,while the Russian Space Forces (VKS) is responsible for military space projects.Timeline of EventsDate Description of eventOctober 4, 1957 Launch of Sputnik 1October 10, 1963 Treaty banning nuclear weapon tests in the atmosphere, and in outer spaceentered into forceDecember 13, 1958 First UN resolution on the question of the peaceful use of space (RES 1348XIII)1959Establishment of the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of OuterSpaces (COPUOS)1 September, 1972 Convention on International Liability for Damage caused by Space Objects1979The Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and OtherCelestial Bodies was createdMarch 23, 1983 Proposal of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI)Dhahran Ahliyya Schools Model United Nations 2018 | 9th – 10st of February 2018Research Report | Page 7 of 10Relevant UN Treaties and Events• Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of OuterSpace, 19 December 1966 (A/RES/21/2222)• International cooperation in the peaceful uses of outer space, 11 December 2013 (A/RES/68/75)• Transparency and confidence-building measures in outer space activities, 5 December 2013(A/RES/68/50)• Recommendations on national legislation relevant to the peaceful exploration and use of outerspace, 11 December 2013 (A/RES/68/74)• Prevention of an Arms Race in Outer Space, 1 December 1999 (A/RES/54/53)• Declaration on International Cooperation in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space for theBenefit and in the Interest of All States, Taking into Particular Account the Needs of DevelopingCountries, 13 December 1996 (A/RES/51/122)• Principles Relevant to the Use of Nuclear Power Sources in Outer Space, 14 December 1992(A/RES/47/68)• Enlargement of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, 9 December 1994(A/RES/49/33)Previous Attempts to solve the IssueThe Outer Space Treaty (1967) is probably one of the most prominent and well-known attemptsto resolve this issue in the past. Formally known as “the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities ofStates in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the moon and other Celestial Bodies”, TheOuter Space Treaty offers the rudimentary framework on international space law. This treaty is one ofthe most signed space-related documents in history, with a total of 107 countries that have ratified. Theagreement completely restricts the usage of all bodies in space to diplomatic and peaceful reasons andforbids their use for any military purpose.PartiesSignatoriesNon-partiesDhahran Ahliyya Schools Model United Nations 2018 | 9th – 10st of February 2018Page 8 of 10 | Research ReportPossible SolutionsA series of actions need to take place as soon as possible to ensure that space is a realm free ofconflict and open for the benefit of all states. First of all, the establishment of a global forum/platform thatis inclusive to all states to share and discuss different technologies and knowledge related to space iscrucial; as it reinforces the idea that space is open to the advantage of all nations and is not a specificstate’s territory. Through this platform, different countries can join their efforts and collaborate to set newspace records.Also, a UN body that is in charge of ensuring the correct implementation and application of previousUN space-related resolutions in countries that have ratified should be created. This committee willadditionally restate previous UN-space resolutions that are considered extremely effective in this issueand/or amend further resolutions.BibliographyWickramatunga, Robert. “UN-Space.” United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs, UN,www.unoosa.org/oosa/en/ourwork/un-space/index.html.