GA-2: the estimated numbers are 65.5 millions, among

GA-2: ECOFINTopic B: Financial Issues on Human Settlements of the RefugeesTable of ContentsGeneral OverviewPrevious Documents (Implemented and Unimplemented) (***unimplemented bc possible çözüm önerisi?) 4-5 syfBibliography 3 syfII. General OverviewAlthough people fleeing their countries to avoid conflict or persecution and seeking refuge in another is not a new phenomenon, the situation certainly reached its peak in the recent years. The report published by The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, The Global Report 2016, states that the number of displaced persons have never been higher in the history of mankind. As of 2017, the estimated numbers are 65.5 millions, among them are approximately 22.5 millions of underaged persons.Even if Syrian Civil War was and still is a major driver of migration, it is not the sole blame. The ongoing violence in Afghanistan and Iraq, ethnic violence in South Sudan, the minority oppression in Myanmar, abuses in Eritrea, as well as poverty in Kosovo, are also leading people to look for new beginnings elsewhere. Contrary to the common belief, the majority of the asylum seekers don’t desert to wealthy countries, rather they retreat to the nearest, safest country they can reach.  If we take into consideration that the countries which are in state of war or in conflict are mainly located in the Middle East, the asylum seekers are largely in Turkey, Pakistan, Lebanon, Iran and Jordan. Since these countries are financially unstable, they cannot support the refugees sufficiently. Without the help of relief agencies or the United Nations, decent living conditions could not be obtained, essentially forcing victims to look for other, wealthier countries to live. The number of people seeking protection in Europe has grown considerably in recent years. With European countries limiting the number of refugees they register to a bare minimum, only 30 countries offer just over 100,000 annual resettlement places, many refugees and migrants take dangerous journeys to reside illegally, many losing their lives and their loved ones along the way.BURAYA BA?LIKUnited Nations High Commissioner for RefugeesThe agency is mandated to lead and coordinate international action to protect refugees and resolve refugee problems worldwide. Its primary purpose is to safeguard the rights and well-being of refugees. It strives to ensure that everyone can exercise the right to seek asylum and find safe refuge in another State, with the option to return home voluntarily, integrate locally or to resettle in a third country. It also has a mandate to help stateless people.United Nations Relief and Works AgencyUNRWA human development and humanitarian services encompass primary and vocational education, primary health care, relief and social services, infrastructure and camp improvement, microfinance and emergency response, including in situations of armed conflict. UNRWA operates in Gaza, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria and West Bank.Common European Asylum SystemThe Common European Asylum System (CEAS) provides common minimum standards for the treatment of all asylum seekers and applications. The CEAS consists of a legal framework covering all aspects of the asylum process and a support agency – the European Asylum Support Office (EASO). However, in practice, the current system is still characterised by differing treatment of asylum seekers and varying recognition rates amongst EU Member States.European Asylum Support OfficeEASO is an agency of the European Union set up by Regulation (EU) 439/2010 of the European Parliament and of the Council. The agency acts as a centre of expertise on asylum, contributes to the development of the Common European Asylum System by facilitating, coordinating and strengthening practical cooperation among Member States on the many aspects of asylum, helps Member States fulfill their European and international obligations to give protection to people in need, provides practical and technical support to Member States and the European Commission, provides operational support to Member States with specific needs and to Member States whose asylum and reception systems are under particular pressure, provides evidence-based input for EU policy making and legislation in all areas having a direct or indirect impact on asylum.International Rescue CommitteeThe International Rescue Committee (IRC) is a global humanitarian aid, relief, and developmentnon governmental organization. Founded in 1933 at the request of Albert Einstein, the IRC offers emergency aid and long-term assistance to refugees and those displaced by war, persecution or natural disaster. The IRC is currently working in over 40 countries and 28 U.S. cities where it resettles refugees and helps them become self-sufficient. It focuses mainly on health, education, economic wellbeing, power, and safety.World Relief”…In our own backyard and around the globe, we stand with individuals and communities through the process of healing, reconciliations, transformation and empowerment.”World Relief, founded in 1944, is an international relief and development agency, which offers assistance to victims of poverty, disease, hunger, war, disasters, and persecution. The organization has offices worldwide and is supported by churches, foundations, and individual donors, as well as through United States Government grants from USAID and other agencies. The organization works with local partners to essential supplies, nutrition and hygiene programs for mothers, safe spaces for children and psychosocial counseling for victims of violence.BURAYA DA BA?LIKAmnesty InternationalInternational Federation for Human RightsLigue des Droits de l’HommeHuman Rights FirstHuman Rights WatchIII. Previous Documents ImplementedThe 1948 Universal Declaration of Human RightsArticle 13.Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each state.Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country.Article 14.Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution.This right may not be invoked in the case of prosecutions genuinely arising from non-political crimes or from acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.Article 25.Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control.Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children, whether born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the same social protection.The 1951 United Nations Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and The 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of RefugeesAlso called the 1951 Refugee Convention, The Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees was held by the United Nations in Geneva, Switzerland. The Convention defined who is a refugee, who does not qualify as a refugee, the rights of the refugees and the responsibilities of nations which harbor refugees but the Convention’s decisions were limited and restrictive. It had restricted refugee status to those whose circumstances had come about “as a result of events occurring before 1 January 1951” and “events occurring in Europe” or “events occurring in Europe or elsewhere”. Thus, the 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees cut out of both the the temporal and geographic restrictions. (For further information.)(“the 1951 Refugee Convention” from United Nations Archives)The 1967 UN General Assembly Declaration on Territorial AsylumArticle 1 Asylum granted by a State, in the exercise of its sovereignty, to persons entitled to invoke article 14 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, including persons struggling against colonialism, shall be respected by all other States. The right to seek and to enjoy asylum may not be invoked by any person with respect to whom there are serious reasons for considering that he has committed a crime against peace, a war crime or a crime against humanity, as defined in the international instruments drawn up to make provision in respect of such crimes.It shall rest with the State granting asylum to evaluate the grounds for the grant of asylum.Article 2The situation of persons referred to in article 1, paragraph 1, is, without prejudice to the sovereignty of States and the purposes and principles of the United Nations, of concern to the international community.Where a State finds difficulty in granting or continuing to grant asylum, States individually or jointly or through the United Nations shall consider, in a spirit of international solidarity, appropriate measures to lighten the burden on that State.Article 3No person referred to in article 1, paragraph 1, shall be subjected to measures such as rejection at the frontier or, if he has already entered the territory in which he seeks asylum, expulsion or compulsory return to any State where he may be subjected to persecution.Exception may be made to the foregoing principle only for overriding reasons of national security or in order to safeguard the population, as in the case of a mass influx of persons.Should a State decide in any case that exception to the principle stated in paragraph 1 of this article would be justified, it shall consider the possibility of granting to the person concerned, under such conditions as it may deem appropriate, an opportunity, whether by way of provisional asylum or otherwise, of going to another State.Article 4States granting asylum shall not permit persons who have received asylum to engage in activities contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.The 1976 Council of Europe’s Recommendation 773 Recommends that the Committee of Ministers;instruct the competent committee of government experts to prepare an appropriate instrument, preferably an agreement, on de facto refugees, covering the following points:to provide for the granting of residence and work permits;to make applicable to de facto refugees as many articles as possible of the Convention relating to the Status of Refugees of 28 July 1951, especially those relating to wage-earning employment (Article 17), public relief (Article 23), labour legislation and social security (Article 24), as well as the provisions concerning refugees unlawfully in the country of refuge (Article 31), expulsion (Article 32) and, especially, prohibition of expulsion or return (Article 33);to enable de facto refugees to find adequate housing;to extend as far as possible the recognition of professional qualifications, particularly those pertaining to the liberal professions;to enable de facto refugees to receive language and vocational training free of charge, and to award grants and scholarships to students;to issue to de facto refugees not possessing valid travel documents, travel documents enabling them to travel abroad and to return to the issuing country, and to exempt holders of these documents from visa chargesThe 1998 Conclusion on International Protection by the Executive Committee of the High Commissioner’s ProgrammeThe 2001 Declaration by States Parties to the 1951 Convention and/or its 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of RefugeesThe 2004 European Union’s Council DirectiveThe 2016 New York Declaration for Refugees and Migrants

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