Generally, many literature, they are briefly discussed as

Generally,
PMO model is a type of business-oriented organizational structure which
supports the organization’s business strategy and business development, and
describes the justification for project-portfolio management organization,
project-program management organization, and/or project management organization
– collectively. PMOs – initiate, create, capture, and deliver value within an organization.
At large, it is an organizational structure design based within and upon both
project management and business management (Hubbard & Bollies, 2015).

PMO
model are of various typologies as evident by many literature, they are briefly
discussed as follows;

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The first of the typologies we will briefly discuss
is that of Englund, Graham & Dinsmore (2003) they propose
three PMO models.

The
first, Project Support Office,
provides internal consulting for project management activities, such as
planning and scheduling, project management tools, and document management. The
second, Project Management Center of Excellence (PMCOE), includes
functions aimed more at assuring up-to-date methodologies and skills in project
management, such as standardization of processes, identification of best
practices, and training.

The
third is Program Management Office, which promotes complete authority
over the projects and responsibility for recruiting and developing project managers,
project selection, and alignment of priorities with the business strategies.

The
second typology is that of Kendall & Rollins (2003) who proposed four PMO
models.

The
Project Repository Model emphasizes tools and data. This model assumes
that the enterprise has adopted a cohesive set of tools for project design,
management, and reporting.

The
Project Coaching Model is an extension of the Repository Model,
and provides training, mentoring, and other assistance to project managers.

The
Enterprise PMO oversees the project management and function, assuming a
governance of project that will involve the EPMO in all projects regardless of
size. Finally, the “Deliver Value Now” provides focus on the total
project portfolio linked to the organization’s goals and assets. It is guided
by full executive support.

The next typology of Project Management office is
that of Garfein
(2005). He proposed four models of PMO.

The
Project Office, which provides data to a higher level PMO or other
oversight authority for consolidation. The Basic PMO, which develops a
process and criteria for project selections, and compiles performance data from
multiple projects.

The
Mature PMO, which aligns projects with business strategy, and implements
a process for assessing and allocating resources, and develops methods for prioritizing
projects. And the Enterprise PMO, which enables real-time project data
in decision making and creates an overall capacity of the project portfolio
management.

Next is that of Craig Letavec (2006) He
opined three models.

A
Consulting PMO addresses the project management needs of the
organization primarily though mentoring and promotes a sense of project
management community in the organization, and is responsible for day-to-day
management of projects.

The
Knowledge (Strong) PMO serves as the central project and program
management body in the organization, exerts significant influence over the
standards and processes that govern the projects in the organization, and plays
the role of a knowledge organization maintaining project libraries,
lessons-learned, and building organizational best practices in the project
management. The Standard (Blended) PMO provides consulting
services, training, and standards-setting activities and is often regarded as a
center of expertise for project management in organizations. Its role across
organizational boundaries is to identify best practices and to implement
standards and tools for the benefit of the entire project community.

The
fifth typology of PMO model is that of Desouza & Evaristo
(2006). They identified four PMO models.

The
Supporter serves primarily as an administrative function by providing
project status, identifying risks and potential issues, and maintaining project
archives.

The
Information Manager function is to track and report the progress of the
projects with the aim of serving as a source of information about projects and
consolidating update status.

The
Knowledge Manager is a repository of the best practices, providing
project expertise, mentoring, and training. It is recognized by the authority
of organization in knowledge related to the project management.

The
Coach emphasizes improvement, excellence, and responsibility to enforce
the project management of the organization.

The sixth typology is that of Gartner Research
Group (2008). In his first research on the PMO in 2002, Gartner
reported three different types of project Models (Repository, Coach, and Manager).
In 2008 Gartner made an update and proposed five models instead of three.

The
Project Support Office is
a formal organization established to support the needs of the community of
project managers, providing simple
cycle life support and hands-on project assistance on resourcing, scheduling,
and scoping.

The
Project Management Office is
a centralized control seeking to establish a consistent baseline of processes,
adding formalized project
tracking and reporting.

The
PMoCE model focuses on increasing the efficiency of investing in people
through mentoring, upgrading
skills, and sharing tacit knowledge between project managers.

The
Federated PMO consists of a
corporate PMO and a number of Unit/Division PMOs in which the corporate PMO
takes responsibility for methods, training,
and tools while the Unit/Division PMOs are directly responsible for project
reporting, oversight, and delivery.

The
Enterprise PMO has the role of reporting and oversight of major company
initiatives and can be expanded to a strategy support office with
responsibility for scenario planning and strategic analysis

Next is the model proposed by G.
M. Hill (2008). He established five PMO models that represent a progressive
advance and competency of the functionality in project management. The Strategic
Office provides the capability to ensure professionalism and excellence in
applying widely accepted principles and preferred project management practices
to each project effort.

The
Basic PMO is the first PMO whose level deals with multiple project
oversight and controls the ability to provide aggregate oversight and control of
multiple projects relative to the performance of multiple project managers.

The
Standard PMO introduces centralized oversight and control, and supports
the project management environment, seeking to implement project management as
a core business competency.

The
Advanced PMO is the “big brother” of the Standard PMO. Its focus
is integrating the business interests and the objectives into the project
management environment, creating a “projected” business environment.

The
Centre of Excellence has a focus on strategic business interests across
the organization, having direct access to the chief executive officer, and
providing directions to influence the company’s project management operations.

The eighth model is that by Kerzner,
(2009). He proposed three models of PMOs.

Functional
is
used in one functional area or division of an organization, such as information
systems. The major responsibility of this type of PMO is to manage a critical resource
pool, that is, resource management.

The
Customer Group is for better customer management and customer communications.
Multiple customer group PMOs can exist at the same time and may end up
functioning as a temporary organization. This type of PMO will have a permanent
project manager assigned to manage projects.

The
Enterprise or Strategic Model serves the entire company and
focuses on corporate and strategic issues rather than functional issues. If
this type of PMO addresses management projects, it is for cost reduction
efforts.

Crawford
(2011) presented three different models of PMO.

The
Project Control Office typically handles large and complex single
projects. It is specifically focused on one project, but that one project is so
large and so complex that it requires multiple schedules, which may need to be
joined into an overall program schedule.

The
Business Unit PMO is to manage a large number of multiple projects of
varying sizes, from small short-term initiatives that require few resources to
multi-month or multi-year initiatives requiring dozens of resources, large
investments, and complex integration of technologies. It also provides a much
higher level of efficiency in managing resources across projects and
identifying the priorities of projects.

The
Strategic PMO considers an organization with multiple business units,
multiple support departments, and ongoing projects within each unit. Only a
corporate-level organization can provide the coordination and broad perspective
needed to select and prioritize projects that will engage better strategic support
by tracking projects and programs that contribute to support strategic and
corporate objectives.

The next set of PMO models is that of
Gemünden & Aubry (2012). They introduced three models of PMO.

The
first is Supporting, which involves providing services to project
members and project leaders during project implementation, including activities
to train and motivate project management standards and operations within the
organization.

The
second, Controlling, involves information management to deliver input in
decision making, including gathering, preparing, and providing information as
well as suggesting corrective measures.

Third
is Coordinating, which includes project appraisal, selection,
cross-project support, crossing-department coordination and coaching parties to
improve collaboration between stakeholders.

The
Project Management Institute (2013) proposed five PMO Models.

The
Project Specific provides project related services as a temporary entity
established to support a specific project or program.

Business
Unit PMO provides a project-related service to support a
business unit including the portfolio management, the operational project
support, and human resources utilization.

The
Project Support Office uses the governance of processes, practices, and tools
established by the organization, and provide administrative support for
delivering the project.

The
Enterprise PMO is responsible for aligning project and program work to
corporate strategy, establishing and ensuring appropriate enterprise
governance, and performing portfolio management functions to ensure strategy
alignment and benefits realization. The Centre of Excellence supports
project work by preparing the organization with methodologies, standards, and
tools to enable project managers to better deliver projects.

Lastly, is that of Bolles &
Hubbard (2015). They proposed five PMO Models;

The
Project Office (single project) and the

Project
PMO (major
project), which we have grouped into Project Office/PMO. This Model
provides management of a single, mission-critical or major project, develops
project operational plans and budgets, and authorizes adjustments. Control
reports up-date progress and maintain project documentation.

The
second model is Project Support Office, which provides administrative
support to one or more non-complex and report projects, providing project
controls.

The
Division PMO and Business Unit PMO we have grouped into a Division/Business
Unit PMO, which provides project business management across the
organizations, manages portfolios, and oversees programs.

 The Enterprise PMO provides
project business management on an Enterprise-wide basis, overseeing division
and business unit PMO, project selection, and prioritization. Finally, the Project
Management Centre of Excellence (PMCoE) establishes and implements project
business management standards, methodology, practices, education, training, and
project management competency on an enterprise-wide basis.

Having analyzed
several PMO models introduced by various researchers, this study came to
conclusion that the structures, roles, functions, and descriptions of PMOs vary
considerably from one source to another. Various authors established a great
variety of different PMOs. They identified a total of 47 PMO Models, but some
models share the same names and function, reducing the number of unique models
to 25. All authors propose three, four, or five PMO models. In the case of this
study, the position of a PMO within a hierarchical organization (strategic,
tacit, or operational) establishes its degree of authority, acceptance,
adoption, and autonomy, for defining, distributing, and supporting project
management practices somewhere within the enterprise. The progression of a PMO is
perceived to follow a waxing path from a nether decision level to an elevated
decision level.

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