Hist-17A-C02Adrian HernandezChapter 1: New world BeginningsI. New world 1.1 Peopling the AmericasEvidence suggests that early people may have come to the Americas in crude boats, or across the Bering Isthmus.By the time Columbus arrived in America in 1492, over 54 million people may have been living in North & South America.The great Ice age.The Great Ice age shaped more that the geological history of North america.About 25 thousand year. This was about the time people started crossing the bering strait land bridge from Eurasia to North America. A.B The Earliest AmericansUnlike in Mexico with the Aztecs, dense populations did not exist in North America. This may have made it easier for the Europeans to colonize the continent, but by the time europeans arrived in America in 1492 about 54 million people have inhabited the two American continents. A.C Timeline of event that happened 1.1 225 million Years Ago – Tectonic plate begin to move and Pangaea started to break apart. Geologically speaking 25 million and 135 million years ago- nevada and the cascades with the coast ranges arising much more recently in the time10 million Years Ago – North America was shaped by nature 2 million Years Ago- Great Ice Age started 35,000 Years Ago – The oceans were glaciers and the sea level dropped, leaving an isthmus connecting Asia and North America. The Bering Isthmus was crossed by people going into North America.10,000 Years Ago – Ice started to retreat and melt, raising the sea levels and covering up the Bering Isthmus which connected asia and North america. I. II. A.A Europeans Enter Africa/ Indirect Discoverers of the New worldPeople of Europe were able to reach sub-Saharan Africa around 1450 when the Portuguese invented the caravel. A Caravel was a ship that could sail with the wind. This ship allowed sailors to sail back up the western coast of Africa and back to Europe.The Portuguese set up trading posts along the African beaches trading with slaves and gold, trading habits that were originally done by the Arabs and Africans.The Portuguese shipped the slaves back to Spain and Portugal where they worked on the sugar plantations. The indirect discoverer was part of landing in a place by mistake and ended up being good for everyone. A.B When Worlds Collide?1.1 Possibly 3/5 of the crops cultivated around the world today originated in the Americas. Columbian Exchange refers to the increase of global commerce meaning it was starting to be global and around the world.2.2 Within 50 years of the Spanish arrival in Hispaniola, the Taino natives decreased from 1 million people to 200 people due to diseases brought by the Spanish.3.3 Columbus was actually looking for a new trading route with the Indies when he stumbled upon the Americas.4.4 In centuries following Columbus’s landing in the Americas, as much as 90% of the Indians had died due to the diseases that they were encountered to be the new world people since they have never had contact with outsiders they didn’t have the power to combat the illnesses. A.C The Spanish Conquistadores/The Conquest of Mexico1.1 In the 1500’s, Spain became the dominant exploring and colonizing power. The Treaty of Tordesillas divided the Americas between the Spanish and the Portuguese. The Spanish conquerors came to the Americas in the service of God as well as in search of gold and glory.Keep in mind that gold and silver at the time was booming and the new world people wanted everything they could get their hands on.2.2 By the 1530s in Mexico and the 1550s in Peru, colorless colonial administrators had replaced the conquistadores. Some of the conquistadores wed Indian women and had children. These offspring were known as mestizos and formed a cultural and biological bridge between Latin America’s European and Indian races.3.3 Then came Hernan Cortes from Cuba with his men and horses. As his journey progressed he added some people to aid in his quest. He then arrived at tenochtitlan which was the Aztec capital with intention of stealing all of the gold and other things they had.On June 30, 1520, the Aztecs attacked the Spanish because of the Spaniards’ lust for riches. The Spanish did fight back and in the end took over the once proud capital and the rest of the Aztec empire on August 13, 1521.Hist-17A-C02Adrian HernandezChapter 2: The Planting of the English America I. Chronology 1.1 The timeline of each of the event that happened?1558: Elizabeth I becomes queen of England1565-1590: English crush Irish uprising1577: Drake circumnavigated the globe1585: Raleigh founds Roanoke colony1588: England defeats Spanish Armada1603: James I becomes king of England1604: Spain and England sign peace treaty1607: Virginia colony founded at Jamestown1612: Rolfe perfects tobacco culture in Virginia1614: First Anglo-Powhatan War ends but many casualties 1619: First Africans arrive in Jamestown. Virginia House of Burgesses established1624: Virginia becomes a royal colony1634: Maryland colony founded1640s: Large-scale slave-labor system established in English West Indies1644: Second Anglo-Powhatan War all Natives were killed or presumed killed1649: Act of Toleration in Maryland. Charles I beheaded; Cromwell rules England1660: Charles II restored to English throne1661: Barbados slave code adopted1670: Carolina colony created1711-1713: Tuscarora War in North Carolina1712: North Carolina formally separates from South Carolina1715-1716: Yamasee War in South Carolina1733: Georgia colony founded England’s Imperial stirrings 1.1 By the time Columbus arrived in America in 1492, over 54 million people may have been living in North & South America.Nationalism- patriotic feeling, principles, or efforts.Primogeniture- The state of being the firstborn child. Also you had the right of succession belonging to the firstborn child, especially the feudal rule by which the whole real estate of an intestate passed to the eldest son.Joint stock company-a company whose stock is owned jointly by the shareholders I II. Elizabeth Energizes England/England on the Eve of an Empire A.A 1.1 In 1580, Francis Drake circumnavigated the globe, plundering and returning with his ship loaded with Spanish booty. When the English fleet defeated the Spanish Armada, Spain’s empirical dreams and fighting spirit had been weakened.Also it helped to ensure the english ships dominance over in the atlantic2.2 IN the late 1500s england was hit with a big depression which caused many people to lose their home and with that caused a peace with the spanish and set the stage for the english people to move to america. A.B England plants the jamestown seed1.1 In 1606, a joint-stock company- a company whose stock is owned jointly by the shareholders, known as the Virginia Company of London, received a charter from King James I of England for a settlement in the New World. The company landed in Jamestown on May 24, 1607. Then later came Captain john smith and took over. A.C Cultural Clash in the Chesapeake1.1 A lord known as “De La Warr” later reached Jamestown in 1610 with supply and also military people.He was also the cause of the Anglo-Powhatan war. Which was started when he started to burn indian villages. They later lost in the second war of 1644 which finally ended them all well that is what they assumed.2.2 The Indian’s New World – Although the war was a big problem Disease was the biggest killer of Indians and their cultures. It took a particularly high tool on elderly Indians, which led to the extinction of cultures.III. A.A Virginia: Child of Tobacco/ Maryland: Catholic Haven1.1 John Rolfe married Pocahontas in 1614, ending the First Anglo-Powhatan War. In 1619, self-government was made in Virginia. The London Company authorized the settlers to summon an assembly, known as the house of burgesses. The house of burgesses- was the lower house of the colonial Virginia legislature.At the time the former king was King James I and he was not a person who trusted the house of burgesses which later drove him to make the decision in 1624 to make Virginia a colony of England which was going to be under his control.Maryland was formed in 1634 by Lord Baltimore. Maryland was made for a refuge for the Catholics to escape the wrath of the Protestant English government. The Act of Toleration, which was passed in 1649 by the local representative group in Maryland, which granted toleration to all Christians but not those who didn’t believe in the divinity of jesus. A.B The West Indies: Way Station to mainland America/Colonizing the Carolinas1.1 By the mid-17th Century, England had secured its claim to several West Indian Islands. Sugar was, by far, the major crop on the Indian Islands. To support the massive sugar crops, millions of African slaves were imported. Civil war plagued England in the 1640s. By 1707 indians wanted to go back to Maryland, but almost all of them ended up getting killed before they even left and got to William penn.2.2 The English founded Georgia to primarily serve as a buffer to protect the Carolinas from the Spanish in Florida and the French in Louisiana. Georgia was founded in 1733.Hist-17A-C02Adrian HernandezChapter 3: Settling the Northern Colonies I A.A Chronology 1517: Martin Luther begins Protestant Reformation.1536: John Calvin of Geneva publishes Institutes of the Christian Religion.1620: Pilgrims sail on the Mayflower to Plymouth Bay.1624: Dutch found New Netherland.1629: Charles I dismisses Parliament and persecutes Puritans.1630: Puritans found Massachusetts Bay Colony.1635-1636: Roger Williams convicted of heresy and founds Rhode Island colony.1635-1638: Connecticut and New Haven colonies founded.1637: Pequot War.1638: Anne Hutchinson banished from Massachusetts colony.1639: Connecticut’s Fundamental Orders drafted.1642-1648: English Civil War.1643: New England Confederation formed.1655: New Netherland conquered New Sweden.1664: England seized New Netherland from Dutch, East and West Jersey colonies founded.1675-1676: King Philip’s War.1681: William Penn founded Pennsylvania colony.1686: Royal authority creates Dominion of New England.1688-1689: Glorious Revolution overthrows Stuarts and Dominion of New England. A.B The Protestant Reformation Produces Puritanism1.1 German friar Martin Luther denounced the authority of the priests and popes when he nailed his protests against Catholic doctrines to the door of Wittenberg cathedral in 1517. He declared that the Bible alone was the source of God’s words. He started the “Protestant Reformation.” 2.2 John Calvin of Geneva elaborated Martin Luther’s ideas. He wrote his basic doctrine in Latin in 1536, entitled Institutes of the Christian Religion. These ideas formed Calvinism. Calvinism supported the idea of predestination. A.C The Pilgrims End Their Pilgrimage at Plymouth1.1 Losing their identity as English, a group of Separatists in Holland came to America in search for religious freedom. The group settled outside the domain of the Virginia Company and, without legal permission, settled in Plymouth Bay in 1620.2.2 Before disembarking from the Mayflower, the Pilgrim leaders drew up and signed the Mayflower Compact. Mayflower Compact- An agreement reached by the Pilgrims on the ship the Mayflower in 1620, just before they landed at Plymouth Rock. The Mayflower Compact bound them to live in a civil society according to their own laws. It was the first attempt at a government in America.In the Pilgrims’ first winter of 1620-1621, only 44 of the 102 survived.In 1621, there was the first Thanksgiving Day known to to us from New England.II A.A The Bay Colony Bible Commonwealth/Building the Bay Colony 1.1 Charles I dismissed English Parliament in 1629 2.2 He then approved of anti-Puritan persecutions of Archbishop William Laud.3.3 In 1629, an energetic group of non-Separatist Puritans, fearing for their faith and for England’s future, secured a royal charter to form the Massachusetts Bay Company.Massachusetts Bay Company- was a joint stock trading company chartered by the English crown in 1629 to colonize a vast area in New England extending from 3 mi (4.8 km) miles north of the Merrimack River to 3 mi miles south of the Charles River.4.4 The Massachusetts Bay Colony was not a democracy because its governor (Winthrop) did not like Democracy. He did not think that the “commoners” could rule.John Cotton- a very devoted Puritan.Michael Wigglesworth- wrote the poem, “The Day of Doom,” in 1662. A.B Important people1.1 Anne Hutchinson- an intelligent woman who challenged the Puritan orthodoxy; was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony because of her challenges to the Church.2.2 Roger Williams- popular Salem minister who also challenged the Church; an extreme Separatist; was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony.Roger Williams fled to the Rhode Island around the year 1636. There, he established religious freedom for all kinds of people.3.3 Reverend Thomas Hooker- Hartford was founded in 1635. The Boston Puritans settled into the Hartford area because of him.In 1639, the settlers of the new Connecticut River colony drafted a document known as the Fundamental Orders. It was kinda like a constitution in one way or another.New Haven was established in 1638. A.C Puritans versus Indians/Seeds of Colonial Unity and Independence1.1 The Wampanoag chieftain, Massasoit, signed a treaty with the Plymouth Pilgrims in 1621.2.2 In 1637, hostilities exploded between the English settlers and the powerful Pequot tribe. The English militiamen and their Narragansett Indian allies annihilated the Pequot tribe. By the year 1675, Massasoit’s son, Metacom (also nicknamed King Philip launched a series of attacks and raids against the colonists’ towns the war concluded by the following year in 1676.3.3 In 1643, 4 colonies banded together to form the New England Confederation. It was made to defend against foes or potential foes. The confederation consisted of only Puritan colonies -Massachusetts colonies was one of them the Bay Colony, small Plymouth and two Connecticut colonies which were New Haven and the scattered valley settlements which were in the area at the time.