Hypothesis Testing Paper
Hypothesis Testing Paper Homelessness is an ever growing problem that the numbers seem to increase in severity in the larger cities. Chicago, Illinois has numbers that exceed more than 93,000 individuals that are homeless and out of those there is close to 20,000 that also suffer with a mental illness. In addressing the link between mental illness and homelessness it is clear that the numbers are large due to lack of medical care and the de-institutionalization from the 1960’s. In an attempt to prove this it is going to be discussed in how one that has a mental illness that is untreated will also have a higher increase of homelessness.
The Research Hypothesis “People with untreated psychiatric illnesses comprise one-third, or 200,000 people, of the estimated 600,000 homeless population” (NAMI, 2003). Mental illness and homelessness is a problem that is not just limited to sex, gender, age, or a location of the U. S. There are several problems that are associated with having a mental illness and being homeless. These areas would include lack of proper medical care, food, social status, working conditions, and shelter. In Chicago, those with a mental illness have a greater increase in being homeless.
In order to gain the proper research that is needed for this study there will need to be citizens from the greater area of Chicago that are suffering with an illness and are homeless. There will be no bearing on the sex, religion, or color of the individual. In this study researchers will delve deeper into the reasons for an untreated mental condition and how that pertains to their living situations. The term homelessness has different meaning dependant on who is using the term. It is safe to say that there are those that stereotype this term. The correct meaning for someone of a homeless statute is found at HUD. ov. 1. An individual who lacks a fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime residence; and 2. An individual who has a primary nighttime residence that is – A. a supervised publicly or privately operated shelter designed to provide temporary living accommodations (including welfare hotels, congregate shelters, and transitional housing for the mentally ill); B. an institution that provides a temporary residence for individuals intended to be institutionalized; or C. a public or private place not designed for, or ordinarily used as, a regular sleeping accommodation for human beings HUD. gov, 2011). For research purposes it is crucial to understand the meaning of what homelessness means as this will directly affect the study. Once those that would like to participate in the study have been chosen the researchers can focus more independently on the reason for the study and incorporate appropriate questions and tests that would include but not be limited to psychological evaluations. Hypothesis Testing In hypothesis testing there is proper procedures that must be followed without missing a step for the most accurate testing and data.
This will be addressed later in the paper, however the first step is stating research and the null hypothesis. If one does not do either of these statements there will be nothing to test against. The question that needs to put into a statement would be does having a mental illness increase a person’s chance of being homeless. The research hypothesis is in Chicago; those with a mental illness have a greater increase in being homeless. Now to narrow it down further and accentuate our data there is a city that has been labeled in our study.
The null hypothesis statement would be for this study is that there is not an increase in the amount of those that are homeless due to having a mental illness In following the next step is to determine the characteristics of the comparison distribution. The purpose of this is for the researcher to figure if the sample score that was given of those with a mental illness and are homeless is extreme or if the null is true. In addition the fourth step would be to determine a cutoff sample score to at what point the null could and should be rejected. Aron, Aron, & Coups, 2009 Ch. 9 p. 313). Finally the fifth step would be to compare the sample score on the comparison distribution. At this point the study has been completed and all the data needs to be compiled to figure out these scores. These scores for rejecting or accepting have already been figured out in the prior steps. At this step the Z score must be calculated from the sample raw score that was calculated earlier. This is found by considering the mean of the population studied and the standard deviation found from the comparison distribution.
At this point is where the researcher or statician looks at the data and the numbers gathered from steps three through five and then decide if the null can be rejected or accepted. (Aron, Aron, & Coups, 2009 Ch. 7 p. 230) Hypothesis Testing Procedures As the testing starts, the hypothesis-testing model will be used. There are five steps to this model. The first step is Restate the Question as a Research Hypothesis and a Null Hypothesis About the Populations. The second step is Determine the Characteristics of the Comparison Distribution.
The third step Determine the Cutoff Sample Score on the Comparison Distribution at Which the Null Hypothesis Should Be Rejected. The forth step is Determine Your Sample’s Score on the Comparison Distribution. The last step is Decide Whether to Reject the Null Hypothesis. Step one there will be two populations used in this testing. The researchers will pole the population of Chicago. The first group will be comprised of homeless people finding out their mental state. The second group would be pole the general population of non-homeless people in Chicago.
Step two the general population of non-homeless people should have a lower number of people that have an untreated mental illness. This would support the hypothesis. If this number is equal or more it would support the null hypothesis. Step three the null hypothesis would be rejected if the z-score of the homeless population is in the upper 5% or a z-score of 1. 64. Step four researchers will take the data from the homeless population and find out the z-score of this population. Step five the researchers will use the data to compare the first and second group to find out if untreated metal illness is a factor in becoming homeless.
The hypothesis is that a person having an untreated mental condition is more likely to become homeless. The null hypothesis is that mental condition of a person has no bearing on a person being homeless. The second groups testing will provide the researchers with a baseline of the population finding out how many non-homeless people have an untreated mental condition. This will give a comparison to the first group of homeless people. If the percentage of each group is the same the null hypothesis will be supported. If the homeless group’s numbers are larger, it will support the hypothesis.
If over twice the percentage of the homeless population has a mental illness compared to the non- homeless population then the null hypothesis is rejected. This type of test will prove if mental condition has any affect on a person becoming homeless. This will help our country to learn how our mental health system can help the homeless population and stop more people from falling into the trap of being homeless. This will give the government the proof needed to provide proper mental health for the citizens of Chicago. References Aron, A. ; Aron, E. N. ; and Coups, E. J. (2009).
Statistics for Psychology, Fifth Ed. by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Chicago Coalition for the Homeless. (2011). The Facts Behind the Faces: Homelessness: Facts and Figures. Retrieved from http://www. chicagohomeless. org/files/images/Fact_Sheet_o. pdf HUD. gov. U. S. Department of Housing and Development (2011). Federal Definitions of Homelessness. Retrieved from http://portal. hud. gov/hudportal/HUD? src=/topics/homelessness/definition U. S. Conference of Mayors. (1996). A Status Report of Hunger and Homelessness in America’s Cities. Washington DC: Author.