I love watching animated science
fiction movies. This assignment gave me a chance to study in-depth of the
movie-making art, graphics, design and technology used for filming such movies.
I was very much fascinated by the
‘Jurassic Park (1993)’ movie and its sequels that were released – ‘The Lost
World: Jurassic Park (1997)’, ‘Jurassic Park III (2001)’, and ‘Jurassic World
(2015)’. Another sequel, ‘Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom’ is coming in 2018.
Introduction to Jurassic Park
Jurassic park is an America
Sci-Fi movie based on a theme park created by rich men and visionary people. This
theme park was created on an isolated island and was inhabited by genetically
engineered dinosaurs who escape their confinement and rampage on the human
characters. This movie brought a revolution in graphics and design industry. It
took nearly 65 years in its creation.
Logo and Corporate Branding
The brilliance of graphic design
lies in the perfect corporate branding of Jurassic theme park and making it
Jurassic Park Logo
The logo of Jurassic park was created
by Sandy Collora and Tom Martin. It showed a Tyrannosaurus skeleton contained in a yellow circle and
towering above a jungle silhouette and a black bar with words “Jurassic Park”. This
logo had such a strong impact on the viewers that it was used as merchandise
over the years.
It was the only movie in the
series which used the logo in the film. The design of Jurassic park was very
simple emphasizing mainly on bold colours. The skeletal iconography was also
used on stone obelisks outside every dinosaur padlock in the movie. They used most
lurid, artificial colours possible that you wouldn’t find in the natural world.
One can see eye popping colours in the entire movie on cars, toys, t-shirts or
ID Cards. This took the viewers into
fake external imagery that makes the jungle and animals look real. The animals
looked more real in containment.
Changes in logo
The logo underwent minor changes
in every sequel. In Jurassic park 2- The Lost World, it appeared as if the logo was
carved on a stone or on cracked wood to give it a primitive look. The bar stated
The Lost world with subtitle Jurassic Park. Due to more letters and spacing required
in the bar, the yellow circle was no longer a perfect circle but it can hardly
be noticed. In Jurassic park 3, T.rex skeleton was replaced by Spinosaurus skeleton. Claw marks
were added to the end representing III and the black and yellow colours of the
circle and bar was replaced with metal. Silver Pteranodons could be seen flying
in the entire movie. In Jurassic World, The background
colour was changed to blue and the title was written in silvery white colour
instead of red. The skeleton was again changed to the T.Rex and the logo was
dimly lit. This was done to give an impression that the logo was carved on a
metal or stone. In Jurassic Park: The Fallen Kingdom (which is set to be released
in 2018), The logo is noticeably cracked to a severe extent to give an impression
of destruction and ruin. The Bar contains the Jurassic world as main title and
the fallen kingdom as Subtitle. Surrounding the logo is fire ember suggesting
some volcanic activity giving the logo an apocalyptic look.
Each and every logo depicted a
story in itself. Every object and the colour had significance in the logo.
Before production of Jurassic
Many movies came into being
related to dinosaurs before the production of Jurassic park. Before 1990s, most
visual effects were given by slow motions and people in suits. Dinosaurs were
brought to life on screen by magnifying lizards. Puppets and men in rubber
suits were also used in replacement of dinosaurs. But the most successful means
was slow motion animation in which miniature dinosaurs were created and filmed
frame by frame, carefully adjusting their positions. Animators could use the
illusion of flawless motion in the movie.
Jurassic Park (1993)
The visual effects in Jurassic park
created revolution in movie making by filming unrealistic things. They made
ample use of drawings to implement the design in robotics by creating life
sized remote controlled robots that moves underneath latex skin, giving it a
realistic motion. This movie used computer generated imagery (CGI) along with
Computer graphic imagery is a computer graphical application. CGI
is a typical hand-drawn animation or stop motion, which consists of a
series of drawings or photographs to create the illusion of movement. It is
mainly used for 3d models, computer aided design, graphic design, video games,
visual effects, visualization, virtual energy, virtual engineering, virtual
reality, virtual cinematography. “Go-motion”,
a variation of this technique developed at George Lucas’ Industrial Light &
Magic (ILM), used tiny computer-driven motors to control the movements of these
miniature models. Computer graphics eliminated the limitations of the using
miniature models. CG images for Jurassic Park were actually accomplished in two
ways. One method was to copy the small models by lasers built by the film’s
conceptual artist, as a blueprint. Their exact proportions would therefore be stored
onto a computer. After completing the fully animated skeletons, layers of
colouring were applied to represent skins and muscles. Other method was to draw
designs and prosthetics of the different dinosaurs. The production used
computer graphics for creating dinosaurs. They scanned models into the computers
by firing a laser at the three-dimensional rubber prosthetic model and extract
the data. It was similar to 3D printing; taking an object and turning it
into data. They then reconstruct the data to make it work in the computer.
An animation piece of software called Soft
Image 3D was used to figure out the joint placement on the dinosaurs.
After that, the data has to be “rigged” with a digital armature in
wireframes. This is the framework for the dinosaur that helps provide its
structure allowing it to stand up, move, and run. Next, the dinosaurs get their
skin. They used a program called Viewpaint,
which allowed them to actually paint the texture of the skin in the computer.
To put all of the separate images together, they needed to be rendered by
massive graphics computers. Finally, the dinosaur needs to be put into a
scene through a process called compositing.
This is where all the pieces to the puzzle are assembled together. CGI shots
are combined together with live-action shots and any background and foreground
imagery referred to as plate
photography. Another way of producing computer generated animation was to
incorporate the work of a trained model animator. Another interesting fact
about the Jurassic Park was artists had to get into character to create
realistic dinosaurs. The digital artists took video of themselves acting like
the ‘Gallimimus’ herd for reference before they animated the stampede
scene; it helped them create more realistic instinctive behaviour.
Jurassic park was perfect blend of direction and design by Spielberg and Rick
Jurassic World (2015)
The computer graphics and
animation improved tremendously after the first Jurassic park movie. The initial
plan was to use both the techniques; Stan Winstons’s animatronic behemoths
along with Phil Tippett’s stop-motion models. But dinosaurs in the Jurassic
World were mostly computer graphics, with just a few animatronic creatures. The
biggest change in this film was that it used motion capture to create the
performance of raptors. The huge raptor which were originally humans enacting
as dinosaurs and their motion was captured in computer. The team even used a newly developed muscle firing
system to fire and squeeze the muscles at the right points. For look,
movement and behaviour of D-Rex, the team references various animals including
rhino, elephants, hippopotamus and ostriches. A lot was changed in the
industry of visual effects since the first film of the series was released.
Since the background plates of the original generally consisted of static and
non-moving shots with few moving camera shots. Spielberg wanted to shoot the lost
world just like the way wild animals were shot by awildlife photographer, which
meant that the background shows some random movement by camera capturing shots
from every possible angle viz. through cranes, camera car shots, dollys, hand
Sound effects in the movie played
a very important role. As no one has ever heard the voice of a dinosaur so it
has to made by mixing different natural voices.
The voice of T. Rex was a mixture
of tiger, alligator, and baby elephant sounds. The voice of deadly
Dilophosaurus was created by combining howler monkeys, hawk screeches, rattle
snake hisses and the swan calls. Baby Raptor sounded like baby owls and baby
In Jurassic World, they already had
Jurassic park’s amazing work, they had some to experiment with the sound of all
new “Indominus Rex”. The sound designers knew that they needed to make this dinosaur
baddie sound distinct. The end result was a mixture of the old standbys for
what you would think a dinosaur roar is made up of but with some higher pitches
to make it stand out as something totally different than the T-Rex.