I. management with an emphasis on promoting knowledge
Employees develop and gain different
knowledge in the organization where knowledge management should facilitate managing
employees’ knowledge, it’s important to realize that organizational knowledge reside
in the brain of employees, so organizations need to recognize their workforces’
knowledge as assets leveraging competitive advantage. (Davenport and Prusak,
organizations need to adopt a
knowledge management technology for instance Web 2.0 as result of implementing Web
2.0 the employees will communicate and exchange information in the internet
world by using social networking platforms such as Twitter, Instagram, and
Facebook, Web services, wikis, and blogs. Web 2.0 applications changed the way
organization deal with knowledge by delivering productivity improvements and
making user feedback a vital part of development procedures. Furthermore, reshaping
the role of knowledge management with an emphasis on promoting knowledge
creation, collaboration, and interaction between individuals.
Keyword: Web 2.0; Knowledge management;
Social media; Wikis; blogs; Knowledge sharing, impacts of Web 2.0.
1.2 Research objectives and method
This paper explores the influence of
Web 2.0 tools in improving knowledge management initiatives. The study first
discusses the concept of Web 2.0 and how can organization benefits from Web 2.0.
This study has investigated the Web 2.0 tools in corporations in Kuwait and its
impact on the organizations. An interview was conducted to collect data, and
the targeted respondents were employees of two organizations. 10 employees of Zain
and 10 employees of Viva. The finding may show the impact of adopting Web
0.2 into any corporations.
To examine the aim of this study, relevant data were sought to answer the
is Web 2.0?
are the Web 2.0 tools?
are the benefits of applying Web 2.0 into your organization?
to use Web 2.0 in knowledge management initiatives?
the impacts of Web 2.0 application on knowledge management?
Significance of the study
This study will help corporations
learn how to use Web 2.0 tools and adapt it to aid in knowledge management initiative
also it may offer a valuable
contribution, given there is a shortage of studies of this nature focusing on
1.5 Limitation of the study
There were certain limitations such as the time limit
because of that the interview was conducted with the small size population,
this study deserved a larger population than 50 for better findings. U N
Second, the used method in the research was an interview for a study in
magnitude it was better if the researcher used a different method for example a
questionnaires or a case study and lack of prior research studies about Web 2.0
in Kuwaiti organizations.
II. Literature review
The literature review will include a brief history of Web 2.0, an overview
of a variety of Web 2.0 applications, enterprise 2.0, KM and Web 2.0 and
the impacts of integrating Web 2.0 application into KM initiatives.
2.1 Definition of Web 2.0
The term Web 2.0 was first
coined by Tim O’Reilly, he stated that Web 2.0 is a business revolution in the
computer industry caused by the move to the internet as a platform, and the
main purpose of the Web are to build applications that harness/ network
effects to get better the more people use them” (Musser and O’Reilly,
2006).According to (Anderson, 2007; Ankolekar et al., 2008; Pachler and Daly,
2009) Web 2.0 refers to the second generation of community-driven Web services
such as social networking sites, blogs, wikis, which facilitate a more
connected Web where everyone can communicate, contribute, collaborate and add
to and edit the information space
The terms social media and Web 2.0 are
interchangeable; though, some experts affiliate the term social media with the
social aspects of Web 2.0 applications such as participation, openness,
conversation, rich user experience, being a platform and channel (Spanner
Works, 2007). Web2.0 has five main collaboration tools according to (Constantinides,
2008) first, blogs are user journal entries in the form of text, and links. Secondly,
social networks refer to an application that allows users to build personal websites
which are available to other users for sharing of personal content and communication. Thirdly, content websites organizers
and sharing types of content. Fourthly
forums sites for exchanging ideas and information around special interests.
Lastly, content aggregators are applications that allow users to customize the Web
content they wish to access. These sites make use of a technique known as Real
Simple Syndication or RSS.
2.2 Benefits of Web 2.0
Web 2.0 is phenomena that impacted the way users look for information by
enabling better, faster, and richer applications while reducing costs of
development and deployment and offering tangible bonds. for example, Web 2.0
can help businesses in product development, market research, competitive
intelligence gathering, and revenue generation(Murugesan,2007)
In fact, many corporations have adopted Web 2.0 applications to foster internal
knowledge sharing and collaboration through document sharing portals
(Dearstyne, 2007). Web 2.0 supports users by mining and gathering information
from different users of different places.
2.0 in organizations: Enterprise 2.0
The concept enterprise 2.0 means
application of the Web 2.0 infrastructure or tools by organizations (Levy 2009;
McAfee 2006). Levy classified the structures of enterprise 2.0 according to two
dimensions: the technology used which refers to tools and infrastructure and
the users either employees of the organization or the intended customers.
Knowledge management (KM) is the process
through which organizations generate value from their intellectual and
knowledge-based assets (Levinson, 2006). KM is considered as the process of
“leveraging the collective knowledge in an organization” (Krogh 1998). current
knowledge management literature has highlighted the importance of interactive
knowledge management technologies such as Web 2.0 in conveying the human side
into the knowledge management (Ardichvili et al., 2003).
Which means addressing knowledge sharing in organizational culture therefore
they will need to shift /change the culture of the organization to more
2.5 Overview of the Web 2.0 for KM literature
Scholars have acknowledged the potential of Web 2.0 technologies for KM
in different studies. Most of these studies focused on a Web 2.0 application.
Lee and Lan (2007) found that Web 2.0 technology is a mean to achieve
collaborative intelligence. Wu and Gordon (2009) planned a theoretical model to
argue for potential benefits of sharing deeper structural knowledge in an
electronic document repository through social tagging and personal document
2.6 The adoption of Web
2.0 within organizations
Many investigators have
highlighted problems which influence the use of Web 2.0.
However, Web 2.0 adoption has received researchers’ attention (Paroutis and Al
Saleh 2009). Web 2.0 adoption could be influenced by the resources available to
employees, such as time. (Jackson et al. 2007) did a case study about the use
of corporate Web blogs and found that most respondents said there was no time
to take part. Upper management support is an essential factor in the adoption
process of Web 2.0 by creating awareness about Web 2.0 and arrange training
courses for employees (Paroutis and Al Saleh 2009). Organizations should apply
a rewarding structure to inspire individuals to take part in knowledge sharing.
(Jackson et al. 2007) found that employee perception about management not
valuing their contributions stalled them from using Web 2.0.
Impact of Web 2.0 on Knowledge management
The aftermath of applying Web 2.0 into knowledge management
initiatives, it allowed KM to move from document-centric world towards a
people-centric world of Web 2.0. Web 2.0 encouraged virtual communities of
initiatives and a knowledge sharing culture (Paroutis and Saleh, 2009). Also, Web
2.0 empowered people to take part in knowledge creation and sharing. Web 2.0
principles also helped employees to build new relationships based on mutual
trust (Sigala and Chalkiti 2014)
Research setting and population
Due to the exploratory nature of the research question, an interview was
chosen as the principal research method to gather opinions, perceptions,
attitudes. The target populations were 20 employees from two telecommunication
companies in Kuwait. Viva and Zain were picked up. The semi-structured
interview revolved around 12 questions about the current implementation of Web
2.0 and how Web 2.0 is being used in their KM initiatives. The interview was
created in-depth, and the questions based on funnel protocol which refers to
general questions, before asking specific questions.
3.2 Data collection
The sampling method that was used in this study was convenience
sampling, in which the researcher was unable to access a wider population, due
to time or cost constraints. The selected participants were assessed according
to the following criteria: they worked in Zain and Viva also the organization
had implemented Web 2.0, and they had the background knowledge about Web 2.0.
Twenty participants were ten females
and ten males, also they were interviewed. Ten of them were aged 25–30; six
were aged 30-40 and the remaining four were aged 45-55. Four of the
participants were working in upper management, six were working in middle
management, and the remaining ten were workers. They held different positions such as managers, head of
departments and administrational staff.
IV. Analysis and Finding
The interview was taped, the interview notes included descriptive
information: the date and location of the interview; the participants; and
information about the participant’s organization, and then the interview was
analyzed using thematic analysis, which helped the researcher gain insight and
understanding from the gathered data also thematic analysis enabled the
researcher to develop a deeper appreciation for the employees
The data were coded using a software that identifies keywords, concepts, and
reflections. The data from semi-organized interview has been coded, key
statements have been featured, arranged into new themes that emerged from the data.
Viva and Zain are two of the leading
international companies that used Web 2.0 application for the KM initiative to
enable knowledge sharing. According to the employee’s statements after both
adopting Web 2.0, it leads to higher satisfaction levels from the users; it
creates an environment of trust and creditability which are the essential part
of sharing knowledge and Web 2.0 supports harnessing the power of diverse users
to form a collective work.
Both Viva and Zain generate knowledge by using
multimedia-based tutorials done by experts
for training purpose which enriches the cooperative knowledge of employees
working in the organization. Both Viva and Zain store knowledge produced on the
website in the form of Q that is accessible for users anytime they need
The two companies implemented Web 2.0
applications into their KM initiative. Both companies used similar Web 2.0
tools such as YouTube, apps, online client service, Facebook corporate
repository system, Twitter, RSS feed, and Instagram. Viva and Zain implemented Web 2.0 to learn about the
customer satisfaction, they were aiming for business value and improve their
service performance, those tools are accessible, user-friendly and consider a
sharing platform between consumers and producers which aids the companies to
create a consumer report.
Web 2.0 promotes leveraging and sharing of knowledge. If an organization is
planning to carry out implementing Web 2.0, first the management should align
their KM intended value with right Web 2.0 applications.
Web 2.0 is a new trend that should be implemented
in knowledge management practices. The organization used to follow a controlled
content and structured system but nowadays with aid of Web 2.0 users and
companies can learn from Web 2.0, whether in the circulation of knowledge or by
encouraging the creation of new applications through reusing and merging
different applications or by syndication knowledge from various sources.
They’re certain recommendation every organization
needs to consider before adopting Web 2.0. First, upper management need to
introduce Web 2.0 technologies to the employees also they must emphasis on Web
2.0 bene?ts to users and employees themselves and managers should explain to the
employees that Web 2.0 will be adopted into the organization’s knowledge
management practices, upper management must clarify that Web 2.0 could help
achieve organizational objectives. This is consistent with (Paroutis and Al
Saleh 2009) founding that management support in endorsing Web 2.0 and providing
training courses is a crucial factor that controls employee’s willingness to use
of Web 2.0 to share knowledge.
Web 2.0 will guide the company towards new
customers and beneficial outcomes. After
conducting this study, I believe organizations must balance between the human
focus and technology focus to have successful adoption of Web 2.0 in knowledge
This paper investigated the impact of adopting
Web 2.0 applications by organizations for carrying out their knowledge
management initiative/practices. It is viewed from the perspective of two
corporations who adopted Web 2.0 tools and assimilated it to their everyday
norm. There is however still much work ahead of us.
In the future, as an extension of this research,
we would like to research the effective uses of KM.
Appendix Sample Interview Questions
you introduce yourself first?
you use social media applications?
What do they know about the phenomena of Web 2.0?
did u learn about Web 2.0?
the upper management introduce Web 2.0 to the employees?
you receive any training courses before using them?
7. Did you resist the changes at the beginning?
When did your company adopt Web 2.0?
can organizations use Web 2.0 applications for managing knowledge?
are the benefits that your organization gained from applying Web 2.0
impact does Web 2.0 have on KM?
are the reasons for employees’ willingness to use Web2.0?