In skills that include critical self-analysis, self-reflection,

In many cases
their concerns have to do with their readiness in terms of their training
prepared them.  There seems to be growing
consensus on inadequate preparation of teachers of linguistically and
culturally diverse students (Eres, 2016; Futrell, Gomez, & Bedden, 2003;
Spinthourakis & Katsillis, 2003; Cochcran-Smith, 2000). Existing ideologies
and pedagogies have been seem as inadequately preparing teachers for diversity
(Ladson-Billings, 2000; Vavrus, 2002). There has been criticism of higher
education institutions that while appearing to accept that they are charged with
future teacher preparation to address linguistically and culturally different students,
they instead execute policies that due the opposite.  They do this by placing preservice teachers in
situations that promote assimilation where the climate of existing school
cultures by default maintains the status quo (Ukpokodu 2007, 9; le Roux &
Möller, 2002). In this way, the multicultural is transformed into a superficial,
fragmentary, and poor add-on to a monocultural curriculum (le Roux &
Möller, 2002, p. 184).

University teacher
education programs have implemented intercultural and/or multicultural
preservice training programs, along with longer established foreign language learning
programs.  According to Gibson (2004)
these programs tend to be directed at:

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1) ensuring
cultural knowledge of different groups;

2) addressing
the beliefs and attitudes of pre-service teachers and,

3) training in
cultural- relevant pedagogical skills.

The literature
also underscores the fact that preservice teachers need to learn how to analyze
their beliefs and attitudes on cultural differences.  Furthermore, that they need to be able to do
so through guided introspection as well as to be taught to become change agents
with skills that include critical self-analysis, self-reflection, and
understanding culture (Gay & Kirkland, 2005). As a result, tertiary education
has seen an increase of courses related to multiculturalism, identity and diversity.
It’s been suggested that infusion teacher training courses strategies, tend to
result in superficial treatment of weighty and complex issues. Specific courses
on teaching for social justice can provide opportunities for preservice
teachers to engage in in-depth exploration of issues and practices of access, integration,
responsive curricular and teaching practices and discriminatory policies. Such
courses will also focus on helping preservice teachers develop habits of
critical reflection and inquiry into access, equity, and social justice issues (ibid).


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