In of course what influenced and surrounded it.

In 1 October of 1949 the New China was born
with the establishment of the People’s Republic of China (PRC). In barely 40
years China left behind two thousand years of institutions and traditions, two
wars and implanted a socialist system based on massive industrialization. In
the next decades China faced huge changes in every aspect, from political,
going throw social until institutional ones; all of this changes were
made with the objective of breaking up with the imperial China that disappeared
only a few years earlier and pursued the vision of ideal socialism.  To understand all of this changes we cannot
only give a look to the Chinese internal situation from 1949 to 1978 but what
precede it and of course what influenced and surrounded it. 

 

1.    
Background

 Since
the second half of the eighteen century China had been in decline, the arrival
of the Western countries and the subsequent defeat in the Opium Wars reveal the
ineffectiveness and weakness of the imperial power to face foreign threats and
also show how Chinas was far behind those countries in what refers to
technology development. This added to the fact that due to the defeat in the
Opium Wars the imperial family had to accept the conditions in the Treaty of
Tianjin1  gave rise to a climate of widespread
discontent among the population. This ended up in the Boxer Rebellion in 1901,
as a countermeasure the government promulgated a series of new reforms with the
intentions of transform China into a constitutional monarchy. Among this
reforms there was the strengthen of the central control over the provinces, the
educative reform suppressing the traditional exams and a new administrative
structure.

 

But this did not help and in 1911 there were
a series of uprisings in numerous Chinese provinces this lead to a situation of
complete instability in all levels that ended in open rebellion. In 1912 the
revolution was on point and Sun Yat/Sen the leader, declared the Republic of
China the 1 January of that same year in the south, meanwhile the imperial
control kept on the north

 

2.    
 

When in 1949 Mao Zedong consolidated The
People’s Republic of China he faced numerous problems, among them you could
find a weak economy and an unstable political system in addition to the need to
reconstruct in a certain degree the institutions. So what was the thing that
make possible the recovery of China in barely a decade? As
far as I am concerned the success of the first years is due to the application of
the concept of Socialist principles in a class collaboration environment but
not seeing everything black or white.

 

In the first years of the new regime despite
the believes of the socialist ideology about been the peasants and proletariat the
ones that should lead China to a new future they did not have the ability or
media to do it. So instead the government allowed the bourgeoisie and merchants
to continue their economic activities as long as they were not collaborators of
foreign capital. The application of the agrarian reform in 1950 supported what I
mentioned before, it consisted in the expropriations of the lands to rich
peasants and landlords to give them to distribute them equally among peasants.
To kept a good collaboration between classes the lands of the bourgeoisie were
not expropriated so this reforms only affected thirty percent of the total
land.

 

The second objective of the agrarian reform
was to eliminate the quasi feudal system that had worked and dominated China
for two thousand years. Despite that you cannot say that they removed it but replaced
it for Governance Structure of the Party; the imperial china used to have the Jun- Xian system that is to say a prefecture/county
system a centralized personnel control and a decentralized implementation just
like the Party RDA. This means that the power is concentrated in a centralized
way in the principal and most important institutions, in the case of the Party,
those are the Central Government, the Central Administration and the
Territorial Control. In the Jun/Xian case these institutions are the Emperor,
the Territorial Control and the Central Administration. But at the same time
these institutions give to the region some autonomy sending there a designated
person to take control over the local government and make decisions regarding
the economy of the region for example. Despite the changes they made you can
still see the shadow of the imperial tradition in the new institutions and
politics.

 

The second reform that shook the basis
of the Chinese society was the Marriage Reform, this one came along with the
institutional changes because you cannot take a country forward in some aspects
and not in another. So this social reform change drastically the Chinese traditional
structure of family. The new law established that woman could get a divorce, something
unimaginable until then, also it offers the option to choose the spouse. Also to
promote gender equality they abolish concubinage, arranged marriages, minimal
age to married between others.

 

The last policy that deeply affected China was
the close door policy that they established in 1950 when they decided to focused
only in the internal development of the socialist vision that the Party had. This
enclosure was also due to the previous unequal relationship that China had with
the western countries thirty years before, the only country with which they had
maintained a lasting relationship was Russia, the soviet giant and the example

1 This was a treaty signed between China, Russia, The United Kingdom,
France and The United States of America in 1860 after the end of the Second
Opium War. This and the Treaty of Nanking are known as The Unequal Treaties due
to all of the conditions, demands and obligations that the Chinese government
have to accomplish unlike the Western countries that have no obligations.