In on the individual elements of the residents
In urban communities the psychological mechanisms the people of the city use to deal with their standards of living in the hyperghetto molded to them as an entire community. In a article by Loic J.D. Wacquant and William Julius Wilson ” The cost of racial and class exclusion in the inner city” it explains the inner-city social disconnection and how they struggle and the structural changes in the society, economy and on the individual elements of the residents and the culture of poverty. This article shows different perspectives specific to the social structure that the residents obtain to survive. The residents of the community traditionally reply on manufacturing and blue collar jobs for their economic sustenance. In most cases when residents cannot find a job they often resort to other options . They face closed opportunity structure.Such as welfare which is a government assistance program and a lot of people prefer not to receive help but that’s ultimately their only options when they cannot find a job or when they have one and it is not enough to pay for their basic living expenses. People also result to illegal activities such as selling drugs in order to cope and survive in the hyperghetto. In addition, to the physical looks of the cities they tend to look soulless where it’s bars and liquor stores at every corner. It’s nothing positive to offer the people of the community when they would rather have other places that will help them. Instead they keep all the negative things to surround them so the people feel a sense of hopelessness and isolation because they are stuck in poverty.”The competitive advantage of the inner city” by Michael Porter, emphasized how the programs for the people of the inner cities to have better jobs were unsuccessful for the residents. The residents of these urban communities are not given enough resources to move out of poverty, when the families must depend entirely on these low wage jobs that pay too little to support their living standard it puts them at a social disadvantage. The residents have no choice but to cope with these bad living conditions and have to struggle to survive. These low-wage workers have less education than workers in general and since a lot of the people lack skills so they are forced to work at unskilled positions to make sure that they can provide the basic living conditions for there families. Yet citizens still continue to work these jobs because they have faith that if they work these slave trade jobs that it will pay off in the end by being able to provide for their children that can help get their children better resources so that they can get out of poverty. This situation is not acceptable at all that they have these minorities working hard labor positions with low pay and barely any benefits and since they cannot receive a better career because they do not quality for anything better and they need the funds they just have to settle for what they can get. Which goes on to show the people of the inner city are strong. They prove that even though they don’t have the sources to help better themselves that they still grind to make ends meet for their families whether it’s working overtime or getting a second low wage paying job so that they can survive in the urban community.In Elijah Andersons article ” The Code Of The Streets” it shows the isolation and lack of hope code concerned by all residents of the community. The challenges throughout the neighborhood that an individual must follow a code to prevent other people from bothering them. In the streets this term is known as ” JUICE”, where basically someone does something to prove themselves in the streets which helps build their reputation. Whereas someone who wants to gain their respect in the street try to show no form of weakness and they try not to give anyone any reasons test them or disrespect them. It goes on to express the difference between the street kids and the descents kids where they have to figure out which category they want to fall under. Which causes a negative effect on the children within both categories because they have to, their lives reflects the mainstream values and the people and homes of the community.In “What is a City?” by Mumford he describes what he sees as handicap to modern city planning the failure to understand the social function of the city itself. This article enlightens the fact how the people of the city personalities connect to the city they live in. “These fundamentals include human potential,both individual and social, of urban life, human culture and the human personality are components in the development of urban experience. He argues that, ” He consistently argued that the physical design of cities and their economics functions were secondary to their relationship to natural environment and to spiritual values of human community (Mumford para 2)”. These people support themselves through economic organizations , they are all put into different structures within the geo plexus. Which makes sure that everyone in the city is placed into their own categories for the cultural process for the economy.Georg Simmel article “The Metropolis and Mental Life” argues the individual’s position in the big city urban life and psychological coping with its form of life. “For money expresses all qualitative differences of things in terms of “how much?” Money, with all its colorlessness and indifference, becomes the common denominator of all values (Simmel 3 para 3 )”. The population of people lack emotional and personal involvement in their communities with such a blasé attitude. This is how most of the people cope with so much stuff going on in the city when its so busy. They portray this blasé attitude to handle everything for them to remain sane in their surroundings. Whereas the money economy is the other thing that seems to be meaningful and valued to the people. For the people that show the blase attitude it makes them lose the feeling for value. Where everything seems to become dull and not interesting and money becomes the common value. This ties in with the a point made by Putnam’s “Bowling Alone” he mentions the decrease of social engagement and social capital. The people still went bowling but they go by themselves because people have been become less involved in communicating with others around them. They learn to be more self reliant and mind their own business and stay to themselves so that they don’t have to be so involved with other people. A Lot of the people do not actually know they have a lot of interest in common for instant they might be big fans of the same sport or even team but they will never know because of how they isolate themselves from each other. It goes to show how the society as a whole are basically introverts and just prefer to be on their own so that they do not have to cope with all the nonsense that surrounds them on their everyday lives.According to “Social Exclusion And Space” by Ali Madanipour in the hyperghetto African Americans are given unequal opportunities. They basically lived in harsh living conditions because they basically were forced to stay in poverty. The people of the city were unable to receive jobs due to the fact that they didn’t have enough educational skills as well as no experience in the jobs they were applying for. This causes a negative toll on the people in the environment because this keeps them at a stand still for falling below the poverty threshold, which socially excludes them from everyone. With them not having enough resources to move out of the ghetto life gets harder for them. Which is a reason why a lot of people result into illegal activity because they have that mindset of what’s the point of barely making ends meet. When the illegal way they see it as a way to make money to help them from struggling and being able to provide for their families.Whereas in Rugh and Massey “Racial Segregation and the American Foreclosure Crisis” they argued ” that the foreclosure crisis also had significant racial dimensions. Although prior research has considered race as a factor, it was mainly to attribute intergroup disparities in defaults and foreclosures to minority group members’ weaker economic position. ( Rugh/Massey 2 para 2)”. The broker hunted for people for false hope. Making them believe that they were getting good deals when in actuality they are setting them up for failure. They already know that a lot of the minorities that they were trying to sell the houses to were people who were not financially stable enough to afford them and it made it more difficult for them to even try to achieve financial security for themselves. They are taking on risk of these outrageous mortgages and its setting them up to fail.In addition, the film “Chicago’s Violent Daily Life” showed ways on how urban residents use to cope with city life. The film showed how the eldest sister zitta made sure that she took her son and nephew to school everyday because she didn’t want them growing up going down the wrong path in life. She expresses how she want them to stay educated and stay in school . The school system was seen as a safehaven to help them from staying in Chicago in poverty. Zitta also mentioned her childhood growing up with her other siblings and being exposed to all crimes and how they became so desensitized to all the things they seen growing up. While Zittas brother decided to choose the right path he went away to boarding school and eventually went to college where he received his college degree. That goes on to prove that just because you grow up in the hyperghettoization doesn’t mean that you have to be a statistic of not becoming successful. He coped with being from the hood and still being able to come back and talk to the people of the community where he basically was code switching knowing how to act in certain situations. Furthermore, the ecological blueprints video about “The Realest Streets of Camden, New Jersey” went on to express the horrible crimes that goes on in the streets of Camden everyday. The people in the video expressed how they are so desensitized to the drugs, violence and the high crime rate of Camden, New Jersey. They believe that it’s hard in the city to make it being from one of the most dangerous cities in New Jersey. In the urban areas they mentioned those in the community who are unemployed tend to result to illegal activities to make ends meet so that they can provide for themselves and their families. These scenarios result to children falling in the same footsteps as the people above them. As well as, ending up being stuck in the hyperghetto because there city does not prove that many resources help people get out of the hood.To conclude, growing up in the inner city community has its ups and downfalls. With not having the same resources people have in suburban areas but trying to survive in the hood has to be one of the hardest tasks to overcome. The people in the urban spaces are only concerned within their own issues and not so intuned with the community.